By referring to your agenda on the
board or by previewing the day's goals/objectives, introduce the
class session for your students. You might say something
like: Today we're going to discuss Nat Ives' article and
how we would summarize it. Then we're going to expand on
our skills thus far and discuss the concepts of responding and
evidence you read for homework.
Generating the main idea and key
points (3-5 minutes)
Begin by outlining the application of
the WSM to each article. Then, on an overhead or on the
board (you can use a student scribe for this activity if you'd
like), have students compile the article's main idea and key points.
Creating a summary
from the main idea and key points (5-8 minutes)
Have students get into
groups of three or four, split the groups down the middle and
assign either Krugman's or Frank's article to each half.
Have each group create a summary of its assigned article from
the points listed on the board on an overhead.
Presenting group summaries
Have each group put
its summary on the overhead projector and read it to the rest
of the class. You should facilitate a brief discussion of
what each summary does well/could improve upon after each group
Transition to Next Activity
Let’s shift our focus now from summarizing to responding. For
homework today, I asked you to read about the different types
of responses, given on pages 162- 163 in the PHG. If you recall,
your audience for Portfolio 1 will be open and interested in your
response. So it's important that we start thinking about the different
types of response we can provide.
The goal of this discussion
is to briefly introduce students to all three ways can respond
to a text: agreeing/disagreeing with the text's ideas, interpreting/reflecting
on the text's implications or assumptions, analyzing/evaluating
what makes the text effective or ineffective. Review the
points on page 163 in the PHG, highlighting important concepts
and phrases, and check out the teaching guide on Types of Summary
and Response (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/).
You can also provide students with the link to the writing guide
for writing response located at http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/processes/response/index.cfm
You may want to make
an overhead like the following:
The three ways we can
respond are by:
with the main idea or key points in a text
on the ideas, assumptions or implications in the text
the text's effectiveness
goal of an Agree/Disagree Response is to emphasize
one important idea from a writer's text and support or refute
that idea using reasons and evidence. Here, you want to convince
a reader that your position is a favorable one.
goal of an Interpretive/Reflective Response
is to look critically at an argument in order to explain what
it fully means. Looking critically at a text requires you to inquire
beyond what the text actually says. One way to do this is to locate
the assumptions that inform a writer's argument and find out what
the writer's argument implies. Along the way, you may find yourself
agreeing with or refuting the writer's ideas and the assumptions
and implications that are tied to these ideas.
goal of an Analytical/Evaluative Response is
to determine a text's effectiveness by examining its parts. You
might look at the purpose, the intended audience, the thesis,
the main ideas, the organization and evidence, and the language
and style. Here, your aim is to point out an essay's strong points
and/or where it falls short. Analyzing the text's effectiveness
allows you to make more informed decisions about the usefulness
and credibility of a writer's argument.
Once you discuss these
broadly, focus more narrowly on the agree/disagree response since
they will do that for homework. Our goal here is not to show students
that these types of responses exist simply as responses devoid
of writing situations. You should ask students when/why
they would choose to write a given response and/or provide examples
You can point out that
they will practice all three ways of responding through upcoming
essays. For now, it's only important that they understand the
differences between each type. Also, let them know that a combination
of responses is possible for Portfolio 1. If they choose a combination,
they simply need to be sure that their response makes an overall,
For the agree/disagree response, discuss
what students feel the focus of the response will be (with what
and to what extent they agree or disagree). Ask them when
they've used this response (either in speech or writing) and ask
them what made that response (or another agree/disagree response
they've encountered) effective or not.
Transition to Next Activity
that we understand the types of responses and why/when we would
use them, we need to establish the backbone of each response--and
just about anything we write.
Have students count
off by three's. Place the following on the board or an overhead:
According to your number,
draw the following:
1. a map of the United
2. a map of Colorado
3. a map that takes
us from our classroom to where you live
Once 3 minutes is up,
have students look at the different maps around them
Then ask the following
questions (2 minutes)
On the map of the United
States, who can find my hometown of....(use your hometown or a
rather obscure location in the U.S.)? Students won't be
able to find it.
On the map of Colorado,
who can find...(again, use a rather obscure location in CO--the
Brass Ass Casino in Cripple Creek is usually a good one)?
Students won't be able to find this either.
Now look at the map
that takes us from our classroom to where someone lives; would
we be able to get there? Most students will say "yes."
Draw a parallel between
this activity and how claims function in writing
If we lack a clear
map in our writing, the text will be vague and hard to follow
like maps #1 and #2. The #3 map is more specific and therefore
more effective. Also in the #3 map, we had a clear purpose (take
us from the classroom to where you live). Just like the
#3 map, claims should reflect our purpose when we write so that
we can support them most effectively.
Transition to Next Activity
In our responses, we must have a claim. We'll need to
support that claim with reasons and evidence. Most of us
understand what evidence is. But often, writers mistake evidence
for reasons. They think that if they simply tell readers why they
make a claim, it is enough to support that claim. However, most
readers need REASONS and EVIDENCE to feel convinced. In
addition to telling readers what you think, you need to show them
WHY you think it. Let's look at an example…
Show students how to
develop a response with reasons and evidence
Discuss the types of
evidence on page 163 in the PHG.
The goal of this activity
is to help students distinguish between reasons and evidence.
Another objective is to help them see how reasons and evidence
connect back to a writer's response. (Often students interpret
evidence as "any personal experience that relates to my topic"
which leads to stories and experiences that stray from their original
point). See if students can draw connections between the evidence
and the main idea from the sample (to reinforce the need for focus
in a response). Also, warn them that phrases such as "this
reminds me of" can lead to ideas that don't qualify as support.
In a nutshell, a reason
tells why and evidence shows how or why.
To illustrate this, you might do a brief role playing activity.
Have one student play the role of a parent and another play the
role of a teenager who just received h/er license.
can I use the Escalade to pick up my friends for the movie tonight?
Stop the "actors"
here and ask the rest of the class what the teen is going to say
next. They should respond with "Why not?"
Then have the actors pick up again.
Teen: Why not?
reasons like: you don't have enough experience to take the
car on your own yet; you're not responsible enough; when your
sister took the car for the first time she scratched it; you shouldn't
drive after dark yet, etc.
Stop the actors again
to discuss the scenario: The parent here has provided the
teen with reasons why s/he can't take the car out.
So, just like the scenario, our reasons in our responses should
answer the reader's initial "Why" questions. But
it's not enough to stop there.
Further the scenario
by illustrating what would happen if the parent did not have any
evidence/proof as to why the teen wasn't experienced enough or
responsible enough or what the sister's scratching of the car
has to do with the teen h/erself, etc.
Connect the previous
activity to your students' own writing by showing a written example
You might do the following:
For this activity, use the sample below
or create your own. Put the example on an overhead and read over
it with the students. Then, highlight the differences between reasons
and evidence and ask students to draw connections between the evidence,
the reasons, the response, and the main idea. Pose questions like,
"Is the focus effective? Does the writer come back to their
main point? Where? Could the focus be improved?" You might
use an overhead pen to illustrate these responses. You may also
want to spend a few minutes discussing how reasons and evidence
might look different for other types of response (analytic or reflective).
One key point from Frank's
article: Frank states that "because kids are not thought
to be capable of acting in their own interest, the state justifies
protective policies, such as the restricting [of] advertising
aimed at them."
I agree with Frank's solution of a "progressive consumption
tax" to an extent. I think taxing people who spend
excessive amounts on unnecessary items may help reduce the overspending
in America and this would benefit everyone. However, I don't
think a mere tax is enough--it won't change the effect of advertising
on on consumers and Frank needs to deal with this in order for
his solution to work.
Personal Evidence to Support Reaction
believe Frank's solution isn't enough because it's hard to be
9 years old. When I was 9, I was insecure about just about
everything from my glasses and clothes to the cars my family drove
("Dad, please don't pick me up in the Plymouth!"
I'd say). But I was also obsessed with Barbie. I watched
Barbie cartoons and memorized all the Barbie commercials. My friend,
Emily, had the Barbie Dream House, and she was one of the coolest
girls in my class. All I wanted was the Barbie Dream House
because in Barbie's house, everything was pink, sparkly and perfect,
so if I had it, maybe I would be, too.
On Christmas morning
when I was 9, I woke up before everyone else. I just knew
my parents had bought me the Barbie Dream House; it was number
one on my list and I had been very good that year. I crept
down the hall to the living room with Barbie clutched in my right
hand. My eyes scanned the presents spread around the tree...there
was no Barbie Dream House. I rubbed my eyes and straightened
my glasses. I must be missing it, I thought.
I looked harder. Still no Barbie Dream House. There
was just this doll bed--it wasn't even the Barbie Dream Bed!
Just this doll bed with a pink canopy. I went back to bed
until my parents woke up.
may seem like a minor point in the grand scheme of life, but I'll
never forget how disappointed I was that Christmas (and now how
I can't escape feeling guilty for acting so selfishly toward my
parents). And I was only 9 years old. The
sad thing is that this phenomenon happens to all the time to adults,
too. While there are many commercials and ads aimed at children,
adults make up a huge part of the advertising target audience.
Why else would Super Bowl Comerica spots sell for millions of
dollars? They are bombarded with ads that say they must
have the two-story house instead of the one-story, the Lexus instead
of the Saturn; they must eat at Ruth's Chris Steakhouse instead
of Country Buffet. Frank hasn't addressed the major social
forces like advertising that play a role in our consumption of
things in America (although he does mention the Tim-Robbins'-Range-Rover-effect)
and a tax won't change this. In short, I disagree that a
tax would fix our problem.
While this sample clearly shows what we mean by "showing"
and not just "telling" by using personal experience,
it contains some deliberate problems whose improvements you can
discuss with your students.
you might have a student recapitulate the main objectives you
discussed today or you might write your own conclusion.
Be sure to highlight what aspects they'll need to cover in their
responses (claim, reasons, evidence and showing not just telling).
Remind students where they can access their homework.
you have more time...
Developing Reasons with Evidence (5 minutes)