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Teaching Guide: ESL Volunteer Guide

Volunteering in ESL is a rewarding service to the community. This guide presents basic strategies for teaching ESL as well as further resources to facilitate positive experiences in the many types of ESL programs that utilize volunteers. Literacy centers, libraries, refugee agencies, universities, and religious organizations are only a few of the places volunteer-based ESL instruction may be found. This guide addresses the needs of volunteers without a background in education and especially those who may have received little or no training as volunteers, with a focus on adult ESL learners.

ESL Learners

Although ESL learners represent a wide diversity of cultural backgrounds and language skills, they all have one thing in common: the need for friendship. It takes time to build trust and understanding on both sides, but with patience and empathy you will be well on your way to developing enriching relationships. The more you know about your learners, the better equipped you will be to meet their needs. Consider the following questions when you first meet your students:

Additionally, there are many outside influences that may affect a student's attitudes, attendance, or ability to focus on English. It will likely take time to grow in awareness of these issues. Here are some possibilities to consider:

Refugees have unique needs. The following is a helpful link for ESL teachers working with refugees.

Cultural Bridges

Developing friendship with your learners can be one of the most significant influences in their adaptation to a new culture. However, ways of thinking or cultural values that vary from your own can be a source of tension, misunderstanding, or even mistrust. An open mind and a basic understanding of some common cultural differences can save you from many potential problems as well as deepen your relationships with your learners.

In her book Foreign to Familiar, Sarah Lanier describes categorical differences she has observed between cultures she labels "cold-climate," such as Europe and most of the United States, and "hot-climate" cultures such as South America, Africa, and most of Asia. She has also observed that in any country, urban areas tend toward cold-climate traits, and rural areas toward hot-climate traits. The following table summarizes many of these differences. Keep in mind that these are general observations and individual students and/or countries may not fit these tendencies. Most will probably represent a mix of these values weighted toward one side or the other.

"Cold-Climate" / Urban "Hot-Climate" / Rural Classroom Application
Task and logic oriented, communication gives accurate information, respecting efficiency and time shows respect for people Relationship and feeling oriented, communication seeks a feel-good atmosphere over accuracy, people are more important than efficiency and time Start on time and keep the lesson moving along, but allow for brief departures from the lesson to build relationships and let students express themselves even if it seems off-topic
Direct communication, 'yes' and 'no' are taken literally, and honest, polite words are usually not taken personally Indirect communication, 'yes' and 'no' are not always literal, direct questions or statements may be rude or embarrassing Avoid direct yes/no questions except on objective topics; avoid correcting a hot-climate student in front of others
Individualistic, value own identity, individuals speak for themselves, taking initiative in a group is encouraged, one person's behavior does not necessarily represent the group Group oriented, value group identity (belonging), taking initiative in a group is largely determined by roles, one member's behavior reflects on the whole group Provide roles for group work; when asking a class to vote, realize that one hot climate student's vote may stand for all of his same-culture classmates but a cold-climate student's vote is only his own
Private, value personal time and space, ask permission to borrow things or interrupt conversations, respect personal possessions, acceptable not to include everyone in invitations or plans Inclusive, being left alone is undesirable, individuals welcome to join conversations or group activities without asking, possessions freely shared, rude not to include everyone in conversations or activities Balance individual and group work; teach students when and how to ask permission to speak, borrow things, or join an activity (such as playing sports or joining a group at a table)
Hospitality is planned, host usually requires advance notice and makes special preparations, guests pay for many of their own expenses such as transportation Hospitality is spontaneous, invitations are not required and preparation is not expected, host takes care of all needs and expenses of the guest, host may expect a gift Students may appreciate your help beyond the classroom; if you are given a gift, the student probably does not expect a gift in return
Time oriented, make plans and schedules, value saving time, expect events such as meals or meetings to begin at the time announced, chat before or after events Event oriented, relatively unstructured, value experiencing the moment over saving time, less emphasis on the clock, flexible, chatting is part of an event When planning special events, allow time for hot-climate students to arrive later than cold-climate students, and plan something to do while waiting.

Remember that although none of these cultural values can be called "right" or "wrong," your learners will need to adapt to the cultural expectations of the communities they live in. The southern United States exhibits many hot-climate attitudes while the rest of the country generally holds cold-climate values. So what should your learners expect when they visit an American home? Can they express individual opinions? Should they make small talk at a store? How important is it to be on time for different types of events? It is certainly appropriate to clarify to your learners the cultural values you and your community hold, which they may interact with daily.

Culture Shock

Culture shock often occurs within a few weeks or months after arrival and may happen more than once, recurring months or years later. Signs to watch for include irritability, lack of concentration, withdrawal, anger, crying easily, lethargy, and negative attitudes toward the United States. These symptoms usually pass in time. Encouraging a sense of purpose and worth can help combat these feelings. Learners who once longed to come to the United States may be disappointed that their life here doesn't measure up to the expectations they had dreamed of. Those who have family members remaining in their native country or who did not wish to come to the United States in the first place may find themselves constantly longing to return "home" and unable to embrace a new culture and lifestyle. Typically these learners will not learn English very quickly as there is an underlying rejection of their whole United States experience.

Conversation Partners

As a conversation partner, your main role is to facilitate conversation practice. Although you may occasionally find yourself explaining English language points, you aren't expected to function as an ESL teacher. Your aim should be to give your student ample speaking practice. Help your student build confidence in expressing his or her own thoughts. A flowing communication of ideas is more important than accurate English usage.

Your student's personality will affect the kind of preparation you need to do before your session. It's often helpful to prepare a list of questions or conversation ideas ahead of time if one is not provided for you, and you will obviously need more ideas for shy students than for talkative ones. Think about ways to extend a topic if your student appears to have little to say. You may want to ask your student what kinds of topics would be of interest for future sessions.

Consider these tips to become an effective conversation partner.

Here are some conversation questions to help you get started. Most of them are suitable for low intermediate and above. You can adapt the complexity of the questions to your student's level.

Conversation Groups

You may be a leader of a conversation group or perhaps a classroom assistant assigned to a few students for a classroom activity. Again, your role is more of a facilitator than a teacher. The main goal is conversational English practice.

English Skills

When we think of English skills, the 'four skills' of listening, speaking, reading, and writing readily come to mind. Of course other skills such as pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and spelling all play a role in effective English communication. The amount of attention you give to each skill area will depend both the level of your learners as well as their situational needs. Generally beginners, especially those who are nonliterate, benefit most from listening and speaking instruction with relatively little work on reading and writing. As fluency increases, the amount of reading and writing in your lessons may also increase. With advanced learners, up to half of your lesson time can be spent on written skills, although your learners may wish to keep their focus weighted toward oral communication if that is a greater need.

Teaching Listening

Listening skills are vital for your learners. Of the 'four skills,' listening is by far the most frequently used. Listening and speaking are often taught together, but beginners, especially non-literate ones, should be given more listening than speaking practice. It's important to speak as close to natural speed as possible, although with beginners some slowing is usually necessary. Without reducing your speaking speed, you can make your language easier to comprehend by simplifying your vocabulary, using shorter sentences, and increasing the number and length of pauses in your speech.

There are many types of listening activities. Those that don't require learners to produce language in response are easier than those that do. Learners can be asked to physically respond to a command (for example, "please open the door"), select an appropriate picture or object, circle the correct letter or word on a worksheet, draw a route on a map, or fill in a chart as they listen. It's more difficult to repeat back what was heard, translate into the native language, take notes, make an outline, or answer comprehension questions. To add more challenge, learners can continue a story text, solve a problem, perform a similar task with a classmate after listening to a model (for example, order a cake from a bakery), or participate in real-time conversation.

Good listening lessons go beyond the listening task itself with related activities before and after the listening. Here is the basic structure:

The following ideas will help make your listening activities successful.

Look for listening activities in the Activities and Lesson Materials sections of this guide. If your learners can use a computer with internet access and headphones or speakers, you may direct them toward the following listening practice sites. You could also assign specific activities from these sites as homework. Teach new vocabulary ahead of time if necessary.

Teaching Speaking

Speaking English is the main goal of many adult learners. Their personalities play a large role in determining how quickly and how correctly they will accomplish this goal. Those who are risk-takers unafraid of making mistakes will generally be more talkative, but with many errors that could become hard-to-break habits. Conservative, shy students may take a long time to speak confidently, but when they do, their English often contains fewer errors and they will be proud of their English ability. It's a matter of quantity vs. quality, and neither approach is wrong. However, if the aim of speaking is communication and that does not require perfect English, then it makes sense to encourage quantity in your classroom. Break the silence and get students communicating with whatever English they can use, correct or not, and selectively address errors that block communication.

Speaking lessons often tie in pronunciation and grammar (discussed elsewhere in this guide), which are necessary for effective oral communication. Or a grammar or reading lesson may incorporate a speaking activity. Either way, your  students will need some preparation before the speaking task. This includes introducing the topic and providing a model of the speech they are to produce. A model may not apply to discussion-type activities, in which case students will need clear and specific instructions about the task to be accomplished. Then the students will practice with the actual speaking activity.

These activities may include imitating (repeating), answering verbal cues, interactive conversation, or an oral presentation. Most speaking activities inherently practice listening skills as well, such as when one student is given a simple drawing and sits behind another student, facing away. The first must give instructions to the second to reproduce the drawing. The second student asks questions to clarify unclear instructions, and neither can look at each other's page during the activity. Information gaps are also commonly used for speaking practice, as are surveys, discussions, and role-plays. Speaking activities abound; see the Activities and Further Resources sections of this guide for ideas.

Here are some ideas to keep in mind as you plan your speaking activities.

Teaching Reading

We encounter a great variety of written language day to day -- articles, stories, poems, announcements, letters, labels, signs, bills, recipes, schedules, questionnaires, cartoons, the list is endless. Literate adults easily recognize the distinctions of various types of texts. This guide will not cover instruction for learners with little or no literacy in their native language; you will need to work intensively with them at the most basic level of letter recognition and phonics.

Finding authentic reading material may not be difficult, but finding materials appropriate for the level of your learners can be a challenge. Especially with beginners, you may need to significantly modify texts to simplify grammar and vocabulary. When choosing texts, consider what background knowledge may be necessary for full comprehension. Will students need to "read between the lines" for implied information? Are there cultural nuances you may need to explain? Does the text have any meaningful connection to the lives of your learners? Consider letting your students bring in their choice of texts they would like to study. This could be a telephone bill, letter, job memo, want ads, or the back of a cereal box. Motivation will be higher if you use materials of personal interest to your learners.

Your lesson should begin with a pre-reading activity to introduce the topic and make sure students have enough vocabulary, grammar, and background information to understand the text. Be careful not to introduce a lot of new vocabulary or grammar because you want your students to be able to respond to the content of the text and not expend too much effort analyzing the language. If you don't want to explain all of the potentially new material ahead of time, you can allow your learners to discuss the text with a partner and let them try to figure it out together with the help of a dictionary. After the reading activity, check comprehension and engage the learners with the text, soliciting their opinions and further ideas orally or with a writing task.

Consider the following when designing your reading lessons.

ESL textbooks are a good place to look for reading activities that include pre- and post-reading exercises. If you choose to select your own reading material, the following sites may be helpful.

In 2002, Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. and Laubach Literacy International merged to form ProLiteracy Worldwide. If your learners have basic literacy needs that you are unable to address, consider referring them to affiliates of a literacy program such as this one.

Teaching Writing

Good writing conveys a meaningful message and uses English well, but the message is more important than correct presentation. If you can understand the message or even part of it, your student has succeeded in communicating on paper and should be praised for that. For many adult ESL learners, writing skills will not be used much outside your class. This doesn't mean that they shouldn't be challenged to write, but you should consider their needs and balance your class time appropriately. Many adults who do not need to write will enjoy it for the purpose of sharing their thoughts and personal stories, and they appreciate a format where they can revise their work into better English than if they shared the same information orally.

Two writing strategies you may want to use in your lessons are free writing and revised writing. Free writing directs students to simply get their ideas onto paper without worrying much about grammar, spelling, or other English mechanics. In fact, the teacher can choose not to even look at free writing pieces. To practice free writing, give students 5 minutes in class to write about a certain topic, or ask them to write weekly in a journal. You can try a dialog journal where students write a journal entry and then give the journal to a partner or the teacher, who writes another entry in response. The journals may be exchanged during class, but journal writing usually is done at home. The main characteristic of free writing is that few (if any) errors are corrected by the teacher, which relieves students of the pressure to perform and allows them to express themselves more freely.

Revised writing, also called extended or process writing, is a more formal activity in which students must write a first draft, then revise and edit it to a final polished version, and often the finished product is shared publicly. You may need several class sessions to accomplish this. Begin with a pre-writing task such as free writing, brainstorming, listing, discussion of a topic, making a timeline, or making an outline. Pairs or small groups often work well for pre-writing tasks. Then give the students clear instructions and ample time to write the assignment. In a class, you can circulate from person to person asking, "Do you have any questions?" Many students will ask a question when approached but otherwise would not have raised a hand to call your attention. Make yourself available during the writing activity; don't sit at a desk working on your next lesson plan. Once a rough draft is completed, the students can hand in their papers for written comment, discuss them with you face to face, or share them with a partner, all for the purpose of receiving constructive feedback. Make sure ideas and content are addressed first; correcting the English should be secondary. Finally, ask students to rewrite the piece. They should use the feedback they received to revise and edit it into a piece they feel good about. Such finished pieces are often shared with the class or posted publicly, and depending on the assignment, you may even choose to 'publish' everyone's writing into a class booklet.

Tactful correction of student writing is essential. Written correction is potentially damaging to confidence because it's very visible and permanent on the page. Always make positive comments and respond to the content, not just the language. Focus on helping the student clarify the meaning of the writing. Especially at lower levels, choose selectively what to correct and what to ignore. Spelling should be a low priority as long as words are recognizable. To reduce ink on the page, don't correct all errors or rewrite sentences for the student. Make a mark where the error is and let the student figure out what's wrong and how to fix it. At higher levels you can tell students ahead of time exactly what kinds of errors (verbs, punctuation, spelling, word choice) you will correct and ignore other errors. If possible, in addition to any written feedback you provide, try to respond orally to your student's writing, making comments on the introduction, overall clarity, organization, and any unnecessary information.

Consider the following ideas for your writing lessons.

Teaching Grammar

Grammar is often named as a subject difficult to teach. Its technical language and complex rules can be intimidating. Teaching a good grammar lesson is one thing, but what if you're in the middle of a reading or speaking activity and a student has a grammar question? Some students may have studied grammar in their home countries and be surprised that you don't understand, "Does passive voice always need the past participle?" But even if your student's question is simple and jargon-free, explaining grammar is a skill you will need to acquire through practice. If you don't know how to explain it on the spot, write down the specific sentence or structure in question and tell the student you will find out. There are several resources below that can help you understand and explain various grammar issues.

Consider the following as you integrate grammar into your lessons.

The links below will help you understand and explain various grammar points. The first two are from British sources, so don't be distracted by non-American spelling.

Teaching Pronunciation

Pronunciation involves far more than individual sounds. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and word linking all influence the sound of spoken English, not to mention the way we often slur words and phrases together in casual speech. 'What are you going to do?' becomes 'Whaddaya gonna do?' English pronunciation involves too many complexities for learners to strive for a complete elimination of accent, but improving pronunciation will boost self esteem, facilitate communication, and possibly lead to a better job or a least more respect in the workplace. Effective communication is of greatest importance, so choose first to work on problems that significantly hinder communication and let the rest go. Remember that your students also need to learn strategies for dealing with misunderstandings, since native pronunciation is for most an unrealistic goal.

A student's first language often interferes with English pronunciation. For example, /p/ is aspirated in English but not in Spanish, so when a Spanish speaker pronounces 'pig' without a puff of air on the /p/, an American may hear 'big' instead. Sometimes the students will be able to identify specific problem sounds and sometimes they won't. You can ask them for suggestions, but you will also need to observe them over time and make note of problem sounds. Another challenge resulting from differences in the first language is the inability to hear certain English sounds that the native language does not contain. Often these are vowels, as in 'ship' and 'sheep,' which many learners cannot distinguish. The Japanese are known for confusing /r/ and /l/, as their language contains neither of these but instead has one sound somewhere between the two. For problems such as these, listening is crucial because students can't produce a sound they can't hear. Descriptions of the sound and mouth position can help students increase their awareness of subtle sound differences.

Here are some ideas for focusing on specific pronunciation features.

Here are some resources for teaching pronunciation.

Teaching Other English Skills

English communication encompasses much more than the 'four skills' and grammar rules. An exhaustive list is beyond the scope of this teaching guide, but the following areas deserve at least brief attention.

Spelling

English is not a phonetic language, meaning that pronunciation cannot be reliably predicted by spelling and vice versa. In the sentence 'Her first nurse works early,' the /er/, /ir/, /ur/, /or/, and /ear/ are all pronounced the same, whereas in 'Jim brought rough dough through the door,' the /ough/ is pronounced four different ways. English has a lot of spelling rules, and a lot of exceptions to the rules. The good news is that generally in adult ESL, with the exception of advanced students and those who need to write on the job, spelling can take a back seat to overall communication. If words are recognizable and don't obscure the meaning of a sentence, e.g. 'My gread-granmother made noodles evry sunday,' you may choose to focus on the content and let the spelling go. You will probably see your learners' spelling improve as they read more, and you can encourage them to use a dictionary for words they're unsure about.

Vocabulary

A single vocabulary word can carry a lot of meaning, and all other factors being equal, enlarging vocabulary will increase a student's communicative ability. Consider that even at a survival level, communication can occur with a string of vocabulary words independent of grammatical form. Make time to teach and practice new words, associating them with a meaningful context.

Bilingual dictionaries, especially easy-to-use electronic ones, can become a crutch that doesn't aid students in internalizing the meaning of a word, so discourage overuse. Instead, try to help students guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from context. If they can't figure it out, encourage them to ask in English what it means. You can provide simple definitions or drawings, but be sure not to use equally challenging vocabulary in your answer. If students are trying to express an idea and are lacking an English word, teach them to try to describe it before reaching for a dictionary. For example, a student who is speaking and wants to say 'hammer' but doesn't know the English word could say 'what is nail-hit-thing' while gesturing as if hammering and perhaps even providing sound effects.

Non-Verbal Communication

A great deal of communication takes place at a non-verbal level. This encompasses symbolic gestures (shoulder shrug, nod, crossed fingers), polite behavior (hand shake, pointing), facial expressions (smile, scowl), posture (tired slouch, personal space), and even mime (hammering a nail) or gift-giving. These vary between cultures, sometimes quite dramatically. For example, the American 'okay' symbol (thumb and index finger form a circle) is very similar to a Japanese gesture meaning 'money.' In Bulgaria, a side-to-side head shake means 'yes' and a nod means 'no.' You should spend some time discussing American non-verbal communication, especially symbolic gestures and polite behavior. You can probably think of many physical gestures Americans use. Demonstrate them and ask your students what they think the gestures mean. They can also teach you gestures from their own cultures.

Life Skills

There is a growing trend in adult ESL to focus on specific life skills, also referred to as competencies, as the context for practical English instruction. These include such things as filling out medical history forms, giving or following directions in the workplace, and comparison shopping. They extend beyond English language skills in that many require critical thinking as well as some knowledge of American culture. Over 200 competencies are listed at the site below. You can use these as ideas for selecting useful teaching topics.

Lesson Planning

Lesson planning and preparation can take an hour or more for every hour of teaching, but the time required will be reduced as you gain experience, plan lessons that carry over week to week, and find good teaching materials such as textbooks or online lessons.

How To Plan A Lesson

Whether you use published ESL resources or plan your lesson from scratch, you will need a basic structure. With some experience, you may only need to jot down a quick list of topics and activities and then gather your materials together, but especially for new teachers, it's usually helpful to write a complete lesson plan. Consider the following framework.

You can use the following reproducible worksheet to design a thoughtful and complete lesson plan. You may choose to omit a section or add activities based on the time you have. Use the "Time" column on the worksheet for estimating the amount of time you wish to spend on each section. If you find during your lesson that your estimate was incorrect, you can adjust by adding or cutting another activity. New teachers frequently over-estimate the time needed for an activity, so it's wise to have some backup ideas to fill in leftover time. Write any handouts or real-life objects you will need in the "Notes/Materials" column.

Lesson Preparation

The first step of preparation is to plan your lesson. Once you have decided what to teach and how to teach it, look at your lesson and think about ways to expand it, and make note of what else needs to be done before your class. What can you bring to add interest? What will you photocopy and how many copies will you need? If you copy double-sided and have an odd number of pages, is there something fun like a cartoon or tongue twister you can put on the last blank side?

In addition to preparing a specific lesson every day or week, it's helpful to build yourself a collection of potential ESL resources to draw on as needed. Think about upcoming holidays or future themes in your textbook. Create an organized storage system from the beginning or you may find your growing collection of pictures, handouts, and games becoming unmanageable. Label all important personal items with your name. Here are some ideas for lesson preparation:

Lesson Planning Tips

Lesson planning will help you teach with confidence. The longer your class session, the more important it is to have a good lesson plan. Here are some tips to consider.

Activities

A variety of activities adds interest to each lesson and serves different learning styles. You will find sample games and activities in this guide for all ability levels and class sizes. Feel free to change their content or difficulty to suit your needs, or use them as a springboard to create your own activities. Many one-on-one or small group activities can be adapted for larger classes by using pairs or making alterations in the content. If you have an odd number of learners for a pair exercise, you can pair one learner with yourself or invite an advanced learner to assist you with monitoring everyone. Unfortunately, it's more difficult to adapt full class activities for individual tutoring, but with some creativity you may be able to glean useful ideas. If you see an activity you like at an inappropriate language level, make it more challenging by increasing the complexity of the language and adding elements of risk, or make it less challenging by simplifying the language and providing more guidance to reduce the risk of errors. In activities requiring peer interviews, be sensitive about the amount and type of personal information you ask the learners to share.

Warm-up Ideas

Warm-ups help your learners put aside their daily distractions and focus on English. If they haven't used English all day, they may take a little while to shift into it. Warm-ups also encourage whole-group participation which can build a sense of community within the group. For new groups, see the list of ice breakers further down.

Ice Breakers

ESL Games

Some of these can be used as warm-ups. Most of them can be linked to any lesson theme or grammatical form you're working on. These games usually require at least a small group to play, but you may be able to adapt some of them for one-on-one settings.

More ideas may be found on the following pages:

Miscellaneous Activities

These activities generally require more preparation than warm-ups and games, but they will also take more class time and can be used to practice whatever material you're teaching. As always, be creative and adapt them to your needs.

More activity ideas are available on the following sites.

Lesson Materials

A good ESL textbook is one of the best foundations for lesson planning. If you don't have access to a textbook or want to take a break from it, the Internet offers a wide range of ESL lesson materials. Unfortunately, many of the materials available are designed for professional teachers in public schools and colleges, making it difficult to find appropriate materials to meet the needs of adult learners in volunteer-based programs. The websites below all offer free ESL lesson plans suitable for adults. Although some are intended for regular teachers, most of the lessons include teaching instructions, and those that don't are generally easy to present.

More ESL Resources

General ESL Links

Clipart

Sites For Students

Consider a field trip to a public library for your learners to log on and explore some of these sites.

All Links In This Guide

Bibliography

Balliro, Lenore. "Multilevel Classes: Some Practical Suggestions." Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy. Summer 1997. Adult Literacy Resource Institute. 15 Apr. 2004 <http://hub1.worlded.org/docs/connections/Balliro2.pdf>

Bello, Tom. "Improving ESL Learners' Writing Skills." June 1997. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 21 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/Writing.htm>

Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994.

Burt, Miriam and Fran Keenan. "Trends in Staff Development for Adult ESL Instructors." June 1998. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 14 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/TrendQA.htm>

Cunningham Florez, MaryAnn. "Improving Adult English Language Learners' Speaking Skills." June 1999. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 20 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/Speak.htm>

Cunningham Florez, MaryAnn. "Improving Adult ESL Learners' Pronunciation Skills." December 1998. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 22 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/Pronun.htm>

Finn Miller, Susan. "Pronunciation and the Adult ESL Learner." Fieldnotes for ABLE Staff. 2004. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 22 Apr. 2004. <http://www.able.state.pa.us/able/lib/able/fieldnotes04/fn04eslpronunciation.pdf>

Harmer, Jeremy. How to Teach English. England: Addison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1998.

Imel, Susan. "Teaching Adults: Is it Different? Myths and Realities." 1995. Literacy Volunteers of America. 14 Apr. 2004. <http://lvanys.org/pro-tc-res-teachadults.html>

Lanier, Sarah A. Foreign to Familiar. Haggerstown, MD: McDougal Publishing, 2000.

Leininger, Gayle and Kendale Moore. Literacy Missions Conversational English Workshop Manual. Alpharetta, GA: North American Mission Board, 1997.

Mason, Tom. The Online Conversation Leader Handbook. 1999. 14 Apr. 2004. <http://www.afn.org/~afn49566/>

McGroarty, Mary. "Cross-cultural Issues in Adult ESL Literacy Classrooms." July 1993. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 17 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/CROSS_CULTURAL.HTML>

Shank, Cathy C. and Lynda R. Terrill. "Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes." May 1995. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 14 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/SHANK.HTM>

VanDuzer, Carol. "Improving ESL Learners' Listening Skills: At the Workplace and Beyond." February 1997. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 19 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/LISTENQA.HTM>

VanDuzer, Carol. "Reading and the Adult English Language Learner." August 1999. National Center for ESL Literacy Education. 21 Apr. 2004. <http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/Read.htm>

Virginia Adult Learning Resource Center. Adult Education and Literacy Instructor Starter Kit. Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University, 2001. 17 Apr. 2004 <http://www.aelweb.vcu.edu/pdfs/Instkit.pdf>

Virginia Adult Learning Resource Center. ESOL Starter Kit. Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University, October 2002. 13 Apr. 2004 <http://www.aelweb.vcu.edu/publications/ESLKit/ESLKit_2002.pdf>

Virginia Migrant Education Program. Help! They Don't Speak English Starter Kit for Teachers of Young Adults. June 1993. ESCORT at the State University of New York at Oneonta. 17 Mar. 2004. <http://www.escort.org/products/yahelpkit.html>

Waters, Judy. "Putting the Pieces Together in a Multilevel Class." Connections: A Journal of Adult Literacy. Summer 1997. Adult Literacy Resource Institute. 15 Apr. 2004 <http://hub1.worlded.org/docs/connections/Waters3.pdf>

Woodward, Tessa. Planning Lessons and Courses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.