Citation Guide: American Psychological Association (APA)

General Format

APA uses an author-date form of in-text citation to acknowledge the use of another writer’s words, facts, or ideas. When you are summarizing or paraphrasing, provide the author’s last name and the year of publication either in the sentence or in parentheses at the end of the sentence. You may include a page or chapter reference if it would help readers find the original material in a longer work. When you are quoting, the citation in parentheses must include the page(s) or paragraph(s) (for sources that do not have pages) in which the quotation can be found.

Although APA requires page or paragraph numbers only for direct quotations, your instructor might prefer that you include a page or paragraph number with every source you cite in your document. If you are not certain of the requirements for your project, ask your instructor for guidance. For more information refer to the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual or visit the Additional Resources page of this guide.


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