Citation Guide: Modern Language Association (MLA)

Digital Sources

1. Citing a Scholarly Reference or Scholarly Project Databases

Note: Not all of the following information will be available in every case.

Format:
Begin with the author's name if given (last name first). "Title of Short Work Within the Database or Scholarly Project." [if citing a particular part] Title of Database or Scholarly Project. Name of Editor, if given. Version [if applicable]. Date of Electronic Publication or Last Update. Name of Sponsoring Institution or Organization. Date of Access .

Example:

The Einstein Papers Project. Ed. Robert Schulmann. 18 Feb. 1998. Boston U. 10 Mar. 1998 .


2. Citing Personal or Professional Web Sites

Note: Not all of the following information will be available in every case.

Format:
Provide the last name and the first Name of Creator [if available]. Include the title of the website, the date of electronic publication or the date when last updated and the date accessed.

Examples:

Watson, Chad J. Home page. 27 Jan. 1998. 10 Mar. 1998 . Nature Conservancy, The. New York's Tug Hill Plateau. No date. 2 July 2002. .


3. Citing Online Computer Services Articles

Note: Not all of the following information will be available in every case.

Format:
Provide the last name and first Name of the author. Include the title of the article (in quotation marks), the title of the journal or book where the print version of the source can be found (underlined), the date of publication. Include information about the edition, release or version (if relevant), the page numbers (if available), the title of the database (underlined), and include the word “Online. Finish with the name of the computer service and the day, month, and year accessed.

Examples:

Wever, Katharine. "In a Painting, Gershwin Packed the House." New York Times 30 Aug. 1998, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. New York Times Fulltext. Online. Dialog. 21 Sep. 1998. Boynton, Robert S. "The New Intellectuals." Atlantic Monthly Mar. 1993. Atlantic Monthly Online. Online. America Online. 3 Mar. 1995.


4. Citing a Short Work from a Website

Format:
Provide the name of the author; the title of the work in quotation marks; the title of the website, italicized; the date of publication in reverse order, and the URL.

Example:

Enzinna, Wes. “Syria’s Unknown Revolution.” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, 24 Nov. 2015, pulitzercenter.org/projects/middle-east-syria-enzinna-war-rojava/.

Format:
If there is no author given, begin the citation with the title of the work and proceed with the rest of the publication information. If the title of the website does not indicate the sponsoring organization, list the sponsor before the URL. If there is no date of publication, give the date of access after the URL.

Example:

“Social and Historical Context: Vitality.” Arapesh Grammar and Digital Language Archive Project, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, www.arapesh.org/socio_historical_context_vitality.php/. Accessed 22 Mar. 2016.


5.Citing an Academic Course or Department Website

Format:
For a course page, give the name of the instructor, the course title, the institution in italics, year, and the URL. For a department page, give the department name, a description such as “Department home page,” the institution in italics, the date of the last update, and the URL.

Example:

Masiello, Regina. ENG 101: Expository Writing. Rutgers School of Arts and Sciences, 2016, wp.rutgers.edu/courses/55-355101.

Film Studies. Department Home page. Wayne State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 2016, clas.wayne.edu/FilmStudies/.


6.Citing a Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Electronic Mailing List, or Online Discussion Forum

Format:
Cite the name of the person who posted the message and the title (from the subject line, in quotation marks); if the posting has no title, add the phrase “Online posting.” Then add the name of the website (italicized), the sponsor or publisher, the date of the message, and the URL.

Example:

Robin, Griffith. “Write for the Reading Teacher.” Developing Digital Literacies, NCTE, 23 Oct. 2015, ncte.connected community.org/communities/community-home/digestviewer/viewthread?GroupId=1693&MID=24520&tab=digestviewer&CommunityKey=628d2ad6-8277-4042-a376-2b370ddceabf.


7.Citing a Blog

Format:
To cite an entry or a comment on a blog, give the author of the entry or comment (if available), the title of the entry or comment in quotation marks, the title of the blog (italicized), the sponsor or publisher, the date the material was posted, and the URL.

Example:

Cimons, Marlene. “Why Cities Could Be the Key to Solving the Climate Crisis.” Thinkprogress.org, Center for American Progress Action Fund, 10 Dec. 2015, thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/12/10/3730938/cities-key-to-climate-crisis/.


8.Citing an E-mail Message

Format:
Start with the sender of the message. Then give the subject line in quotation marks, followed by a period. Identify the recipient of the message and provide the date of the message.

Example:

Thornbrugh, Caitlin. “Coates Lecture.” Received by Rita Anderson, 20 Oct. 2015.


9.Citing a Facebook Post or Comment

Format:
Follow the general format for citing a short work on a website.

Example:

Bedford English. “Stacey Cochran explores Reflective Writing in the Classroom and as a Writer.” Facebook, 15 Feb.2016, www.facebook.com/BedfordEnglish/posts/10153415001259607/.


10.Citing a Twitter Post (Tweet)

Format:
Provide the entire tweet in place of the title, and include the time after the date.

Example:

Curiosity Rover. “Can you see me waving? How to spot #Mars in the night sky: https://youtu.be/hv8hVvJlcJQ.” Twitter, 5 Nov. 2015, 11:00 a.m., twitter.com/marscuriosity/status/672859022911889408/.


11.Citing Computer Software, an App, or Video Game

Format:
Cite computer software, an App or Video Game as you would a book.

Example:

Words with Friends. Version 5.84. Zynga, 2013.


12.Citing Other Online Sources

Format:
For other online sources, adapt the guidelines to the medium. Include as much information as necessary for you readers to easily find your source. The example below is for a podcast. Because no publication date is given, the citation ends with the access date instead.

Example:

Tanner, Laura. “Virtual Reality in 9/11 Fiction.” Literature Lab, Department of English, Brandeis U, www.brandeis.edu/departments/english/literaturelab/tanner.html/. Accessed 14 Feb. 2016

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