Citation Guide: Modern Language Association (MLA)

MLA Directory of Variations to Works Cited Formatting Rules

1. Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author in Works Cited

Format:
For references to authors with more than one work in your works cited list, insert a short version of the title between the author and the page number, separating the author and the title with a comma.

Example:

(Sacks, Hallucinations 77)

(Sacks, Mind’s Eye 123)


2. Citing an Anonymous Source or If No Author is Named on Title Page

Format:
If you are citing a source that has no known author; such as the book A Woman in Berlin, use a brief version of the title in the parenthetical citation.

Example:

The narrator pays particular attention to the culture of rape in Berlin during World War II, calling it a “collective experience” and claiming that German women comforted one another by speaking about it – something they never would have considered during peacetime (Woman 147).


3. Citing a Literary Work

Format:
Along with the page number(s), give other identifying information, such as a chapter, scene, or line number, that will help readers find the passage.

Example:

One prominent motif introduced at the opening of Beloved is bestiality, exemplified in Sethe’s being described as “down on all fours” at the first appearance of her dead daughter’s ghost (Morrison 27; ch. 1).


4. Citing a Source Without Page Numbers

Format:
Give a section, paragraph, or screen number, if remembered, in the parenthetical citation.

Example:

First-time American mothers and fathers both have aged an average of three to four years since 1970 (Shulevitz, par. 4).

It is adults, not children, who present the greatest challenge in gift giving, as adults tend to long for intangibles – like love or career success – that are harder to pin down (Rothman).


5. Citing a Work in an Edited Collection or Anthology

Format:
Cite the author of the work, not the editor of the collection or anthology. Give the author, then the title in quotation marks. Follow with the title of the collection in italics, the label “edited by” and the name(s) of the editor(s) (first name first), the publication information, and the inclusive page numbers for the selection or chapter.

Example:

In his satirical essay “A Presidential Candidate,” Mark Twain outlines his plan to thwart the opposition, insisting that “if you know the worst about a candidate, to begin with, every attempt to spring things on him will be checkmated” (3).

Sayrafiezadeh, Saïd. “Paranoia.” New American Stories, edited by Ben Marcus, Vintage Books, 2015, pp. 3-29.

(Sacks, Mind’s Eye 123)

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