Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Name-Year System)

Digital Sources

Note: CSE lists formats for a variety of digital sources. For more specific formatting examples, visit the Council of Science Editors website.


1. Online Journal Articles

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors]. Year of Publication. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title [medium]; Volume (Issue): Inclusive Page Numbers [if available]. Availability Information. Date of Access.

Example:

Loker WM. 1996. "Campesinos" and the crisis of modernization in Latin America. Jour of Pol Ecol [serial online]; 3(1). Available: http://www.library.arizona.edu/ej/jpe/volume_3/ascii-lokeriso.txt via the INTERNET. Accessed 1996 Aug 11.


2. E-Books (Monographs)

Format:
[Abbreviated Name of Corporate Author, if appropriate] Name of Corporate Author. Year of Publication. TITLE OF MONOGRAPH [monograph online]. Place of Publication: Publisher; [Update Information, if appropriate]. Availability Information. Date of Access.

Example:

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Services. 1998. RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PERIMENOPAUSAL PATIENT IN CLINICAL PRACTICE [monograph online]. Available from: Femhealth, http: //peri-menopause.com. Accessed 1999 May 20.


3. Computer Program with an Author

This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 669).

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Year of Publication. NAME OF PROGRAM [medium]. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Physical Description. System Requirements.

Example:

Rosenberg V, Ghalambor C, Rycus P, Thomas R. 1988. PRO-CITE [computer program]. Version 1.4. Ann Arbor (MI): Personal Bibliographic Software. 3 computer disks: color, 5 1/4 in. Accompanied by: 1 manual. System requirements: IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2 or any 100% compatible computer; 320K RAM; DOS 2.0 or higher.


4. Computer Program without an Author

Note: This example was taken from CSE's Scientific Style and Format (p 668).

Format:
[Abbreviated Name of Corporate Author] Corporate Author. Year of Publication. NAME OF PROGRAM [medium]. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Physical Description. Accompanying material. System requirements.

Example:

[NLM] National Library of Medicine. 1990. GRATEFUL MED [computer program]. Version 5.0. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine. 5 computer disks: 5 1/4 in.; or 2 computer disks: 3 1/2 in. Accompanied by: 1 user's guide; 1 troubleshooting guide. System requirements: IBM PC family or fully compatible computer; DOS 2.0 or higher; Hayes Smartmodem or fully compatible modem; 384K RAM required, 512K RAM recommended; 1 or more floppy drives; hard disk with a minimum of 2 MB of free space strongly recommended.


5. Online Databases

Note: This example was taken from the National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation Supplement: Internet Formats. (p 49).

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author, [followed by last names and initials of other authors, if any]. Title of Database. Version. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication [Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation].

Example:

Prevention News Update Database [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(US), National Prevention Information Network. 1988 Jun - [cited 2001 Apr 12]. Available from:
http://www.cdcnpin.org/db/public/dnmain.htm


6. Website

Format:
Last Name and Initial(s) of Author ; Title of Webpage [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation]. Available from: (Insert URL)

Example:

British Medical Journal [Internet]. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ; 2004 July 10; Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/


7. Email Messages

Format:
Author of Message. Title of Message. Message to: Message Recipient. Date of Publication [Date of Citation].

Example:

Harris JP. RE: determining rH factor [Internet]. Message to: Adam Zacharias. 1998 Feb 23, 12:08 pm [cited 1998 Feb 28].


8. Email Discussion List Message

Format:
Author of Message. Title of Message. In: Title of List. [Place of Publication: Publisher]; Date of Publication; Date of [Citation date]. Numeration of Message. Available from: Insert URL


Example:

Kennedy J. AMA Physician Characteristics. In: Medlib. [NY: Univ of Buffalo]; 2001 December week 3, [Cited 2004 July 10]. 1. Available from: http://listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A1=ind0112c&L=medlib-l

9. Web Document

Format:
For a stand-alone Web source such as a report, or a section within a larger website, cite as much of the following information as possible: author, publication date, document title, and URL. If the content is likely to be changed or updated, include your retrieval date.

Example(s):

Matz, M. (2016, March 24). Five reasons to protect the Cherokee National Forest. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/.


10. Blog Post or Comment

Format:
To cite an entry on a blog, give the author (or screen name, if available), the date the material was posted, and the title of the entry. Include the description “Blog post” or “Blog comment” in square brackets and provide the URL.

Example(s):

Wade, L. (2016, March 10). Does your vote affect public policy? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2016/03/10/does-your-vote-affect-public-policy/.


11. Facebook Post

Format:
Start with the author’s name exactly as it appears and the date of the post. Give the first few words of the post in place of the title, and include the label “Facebook post” in square brackets. Include the retrieval date and the URL. If the Facebook page is private and will not be accessible to readers, cite it as you would cite personal communication within the body of your text, not in the reference list.

Example(s):

Macmillan Learning. (2016, April 28). College readiness and remediation go hand in hand [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/MacmillanLearn/


12. Twitter Post

Format:
Use the author’s real name, if possible, followed by the screen name in brackets. Include the entire tweet in place of the title, followed by the label “Tweet” in square brackets. End with the URL.

Example(s):

Applebaum, Y. (2016, March 29). I can say as a historian, with a fair amount of confidence, that scholars will certainly mine social media in the future – they already are [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/YApplebaum/status/714822912172285952


13. Podcast

Format:
Give the name of the producer, the date of the podcast, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Blumberg, A. (Host). (2015, November 15). The Secret Formula. StartUp [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://gimletmedia.com/episode/16-the-secret-formula/


14. Online Video

Format:
Give the name of the creator, the date it was posted, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Neistat, C. (2012, November 3). Staten Island hurricane destruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Wr9594oKZNQ#


15. Computer Software or Game

Format:
Sometimes a person is named as having rights to the software or game: in that case, list that person as the author, followed by the date in parentheses. Identify the source in square brackets as “Computer software” or “Computer game.” End with the place of publication and the publisher, or list the URL if the software is available online. If the creator is unknown, begin with the name of the software or game, followed by the label in square brackets and the date in parentheses. End with the locatin and publisher or URL. If you are referring to a specific version that isn’t included in the name, put this information last.

Example(s):

Rosetta Stone Spanish (Latin America) Level 1 [Computer software]. (2010) Arlington, VA: Rosetta Stone.

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