Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Name-Year System)

Examples of Name-Year In-Text Formatting Rules

1. Citing an Entire Source

When citing an entire work, document the last name of the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.

Format:
Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the Period). One space separates the author's name and the date.

Example:

In one such study (Anderson 1997)...

Format:
When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow directly after mention of the author's name.

Example:

Anderson (1997) determined that...


2. Citing Part of a Source

When you cite a specific part of a source, document the last name of the author, the year of publication, AND the page numbers (or chapter, section, line numbers) where the cited material may be found. The citation format varies according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.

Format:
Cite all three elements (author name, date, and page numbers or chapter) in parentheses, directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the period). One space separates the author's name and the date, and one comma separates the date and the page number (or chapter, etc.). The abbreviation "p" or "pp" precedes the page number(s).

Example:

In one such study (Anderson 1997, p 27)...

Format:
Place the year of publication within parenthetical note directly after the author's name. In the case of a quote, paraphrase or specific piece of information, follow the date with a comma and page number(s). When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (the period).

Example:

Anderson (1997, p 312) determined that...

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