Citation Guide: Council of Science Editors (Name-Year System)

Citing Sources within Your Document

The CSE Name-Year in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CSE Citation-Sequence system. It emphasizes authors' names and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the hard sciences.

In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.

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Introduction