Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System)

Examples of How to Arrange Notes & Bibliography Entries

1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using "Anonymous". When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.

When the author's name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in [brackets]. When the author's name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the [brackets?].

Notes Example:

4. "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

4. [Joe Schmoe?], "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

Bibliography Example:

Parsons, Elsie Clews. Folk-Lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 1923. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press, 1969.

"Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.

Peterkin, Julia. Black April. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1927.

[Joe Schmoe?], "Passing Race, A," Canadian Magazine, 71 (1929): 34.


2. Author Name Included in Source Title

Notes Example:
Note: Autobiographies, Collected Letters and Editions of Complete Works often include the author's name in the title. In such cases, the citation can begin with the title of the work. Both the author name and title must be included in the bibliography.

5. The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats (New York: Macmillan, 1977), 31.

Bibliography Example:

Yeats, W. B. The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats. New York: Macmillan, 1977.


3. Author of One Work is First Co-Author of Another

Notes Example:
Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.

Shor, Ira. Culture Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration, 1969-1982. (Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1986), 55.

Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. A Pedagogy of Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. (New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1987), 112- 115.


4. Multiple Works by Same Author: Using "three em" (---) Dashes

Notes Example:
Note: The three-em dash serves the same purpose as "ditto" marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry.

7. Julia Peterkin. Black April. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1927), 48.

8. ---. Scarlet Sister Mary. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 92.


5. Source Quoted in another Source

Note: Both sources are cited in the same note. In this case, the format combines both the elements for citing a Book Review with elements for citing a book with one author. The source of the quote itself does not require a bibliographic entry.

Notes Example:

6. Annie Dillard, "Write Till You Drop," New York Times Book Review, 28 May 1989, 1, quoted in John Calderazzo, Writing from Scratch: Freelancing (Savage, MD: Littlefield Adams Quality Paperbacks, 1990), 6.


6. Using "Ibid" and Shortened Citations

Note: "Ibid.," the Latin abbreviation meaning "in the same place", may replace a full citation in consecutively ordered notes referencing the same piece of work. A shortened version of the note may then be substituted for all non-consecutive citations.

Notes Example:

5. Julia Peterkin. Scarlet Sister Mary. Indianapolis: (Bobbs-Merrill, 1928), 56.

6. Ibid., 113.

7. __________(Unrelated Full Citation)____________.

8. __________(Unrelated Full Citation)____________.

9. Peterkin, Scarlet, 225.


7. Cross-Referencing Notes

Note Example:
Note: All things being equal, a note referencing an identical previous note may replace a full citation.

10. See note 5 above.

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