Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System)

Digital Sources

All digital sources should include either a publication date, a revision or “last modified” date, or an access date. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.

1. Online Computer Services

Note: The following source was obtained through the computer service "Dialog."

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). Print Publication Information. Online Publication Information including Computer Service Name and Accession Number. Note the Italics.

Wever, Katharine. "In a Painting, Gershwin Packed the House." New York Times 30 Aug. 1998, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. Dialog, New York Times Fulltext 03819774.

2. Online Documents

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). [Source Type]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Publication Date-or other relevant information if not a book. Accessed Day Month Year. Available from Source Name: URL link. Medium.

Bierce, Ambrose. Can Such Things Be True? [book online]. New York: Johnathan Cape and Harrison Smith, 1993. Accessed 28 September 1998. Available from gopher: // Internet.

3. Online Databases

Bibliography Format:
Author or Editor-Last Name first. "Title."-in quotations (italics if book title). In Database Name [database online]. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Publication Date [update and access dates-Day Month Year]. Accession Number-or other necessary access information Number of Screens. Available from Source Name, Location.

"Abbott Announces First Treatment for AIDS-related Infection." In Businesswire [database online]. Abbott Park, Ill.: Business Wire, 1986- [updated 28 December 1993; cited 20 November 1998]. Accession no. 0376540, NO=BW6540. 1 screen. Available from DIALOG Information Services, Inc., Palo Alto, Calif.

4. Article from a Database (Note Example)

4. Alessandro, Pes, “Becoming Imperialist: Italian Colonies in Fascist Textbooks for Primary Schools.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18, no. 5 (2013): 609-11, Academic Search Premier (92017350), doi: 10.1080/1354571X.2013.839519.

5. Article from an Online Journal(Note Example)

5. Gary Fields, “Palestinian Landscape in a ‘Not-too-Distant-Mirror,’” Journal of Historical Sociology 23, no. 2 (June 2010), doi: 10.111/j.1467-6443.2010.01373.x.

6. Article in an Online Magazine (Note Example)

6. Jacob Siegel, “The History and Logic of Military Ultimatums, From Suez to Crimea.” The Daily Beast, March 3, 2014.

7. Article from a Nonperiodical Website (Note Example)

7. Abby Mendelson, “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment,” Pittsburg Pirates,, May 24, 2013.

8. Citing an Online Book (Note Example)

8. Gary Ruskin, Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations (Washington, DC: Essential Information, 2013),

9. Article Posted on a Wiki (Note Example)

9. “Native Americans,” Davis Wiki, accessed March 4, 2014,

10. Citing an Entire Blog (Note Example)

10. Pat McNamara, McNamara’s Blog: Musings of a Catholic Church Historian from Queens, New York,

11. Citing an Entry or Comment on a Blog (Note Example)

11. Donna Haisty Winchell, “In Arizona, Is It Ethics or Economics?” Argument and the Headlines (blog), Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition, March 3, 2014,

12. Citing a Email Message (Note Example)

12. Brysa H. Levy, e-mail message to author, January 4, 2014.

13. Citing an Online Posting to a Discussin Group (Note Example)

13. Alessandro Busà to URBANTH-L discussion group, December 1, 2009,

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