Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System)

Interviews, Letters and Personal Communications

1. Published Interviews

Note: Consult The Chicago Manual of Style to format interviews appearing in other print and non-print mediums.

Notes Format:
Numeral. Interview Subject-First Name first, "Interview Title,"-in quotation marks, interviewed by-First Name first, Publication Title- in italics, Month and Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

1. Dr. Robert Bullard, "Dr. Robert Bullard: Some People Don't Have the Complexion for..." interviewed by Jim Motavelli. E Magazine, July/August 1998: 10-13.

Bibliography Format:
Interview Subject-Last Name first. "Interview Title,"-in quotation marks, interviewed by-First Name first, Publication Title-in italics, Month and Year of Publication: Page Number(s).

Bullard, Dr. Robert."Dr. Robert Bullard: Some People Don't Have the Complexion for...," interviewed by Jim Motavelli, E Magazine, July/August 1998: 10-13.


2. Unpublished Interviews

Notes Format:
Numeral. Interview Subject-First Name first, interview by-First Name first, type of interview, Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview.

2. Christine S. Neuhoff, interview by author, tape recording, Fort Collins, CO., 29 September 1998.

Bibliography Format:
Interview Subject-Last Name first. Interview by-First Name first, type of interview. Interview Location, Day Month Year of Interview.

Neuhoff, Christine S. Interview by author, tape recording. Fort Collins, CO, 29 September 1998.


3. Published Letters

Notes Format:
Numeral. Author-First Name first to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter, Collection Title- in italics, ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, Page Number(s) when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

3. Flannery O'Connor to Maryat Lee, 20 May 1960, In the Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995), 396.

Bibliography Format:
Author-First Name first. Letter to Recipient-First Name first, Day Month Year of Letter. Collection Title-in italics, Page Number(s). ed. Editor Name if applicable-First Name first, (Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication)-in parenthesis, when citing specific portions or quoted passages.

O'Connor, Flannery. Letter to Maryat Lee, 20 May 1960. In The Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald, 396. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995.

Note: Make a bibliographic entry for the entire letter collection when more than one letter is cited. Include collection name, editor if applicable, Place of Publication: Publisher and Year of Publication as in the example below. More specific bibliographic information should appear within the individual citation notes.

O'Connor, Flannery. The Habit of Being, Letters Edited and with an Introduction by Sally Fitzgerald. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979; New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Noonday Press, 1995.


4. Unpublished Letters

Notes Format:
Unpublished letters (and any other such forms of personal communications) are generally unavailable for public consumption and so a bibliography entry will serve no useful purpose. Instead, document these types of sources in your notes with an informal description.

4. In a letter to the author dated 25 March 1995, Sandra Nesbitt expressed....

or

4. Nesbitt, Sandra. Letter to the author, 25 March 1995.

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