Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Notes System)

Examples of Notes & Bibliography Formatting Rules

1. Superscript Number Placed at the End of a Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 1 is an implied reference indicating that the origin of the source material will be found in a footnote or endnote.

Writing your way out is how you escape the Penguin Room.1


2. Superscript Number Placed after a Clause

Note: In this case, superscript number 3 is an express reference. It includes an author tag, or attribute, naming the origin of the source material.

Calderazzo's "Find the Penguin Room" solution,3 the curious and unexpected response to one of the basic questions many beginning writers ask, is introduced in the first chapter.


3. Superscript Number Placed before an em dash in a Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 5 implies a reference specific to that part of the sentence which precedes the em dash.

What kind of person brings a penguin collection to the broiling slickrock desert5-a simple enough question-is the type of thing that triggers the instinctual curiosity of a seasoned freelance writer.


4. Two or More Superscript Numbers in One Sentence

Note: In this case, superscript number 7 references the source indicated within the quotation marks whereas, superscript number 8 references an entire chapter.

Calderazzo's use of Annie Dillard's "write as if you were dying" notion,7 though a grim thought, conveniently closes the opening chapter on finding inspiration, following your curiosity and thinking like a freelancer.8

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