Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

Examples of How to Arrange Reference List Entries

1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using "Anonymous". When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.

When the author's name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in [brackets]. When the author's name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the [brackets?].


Parsons, Elsie Clews. [1923] 1969. Folk-lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press.

Passing Race, A. 1929. Canadian Magazine.

Peterkin, Julia. 1927. Black April. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.

[Joe Schmoe?]. Passing Race, A, 1929. Canadian Magazine.

2. Author of One Work is First Co-Author of Another

Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.

Shor, Ira. 1986. Culture wars: School and society in the conservative restoration, 1969-1982. Boston: Routledge and K. Paul.

Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. 1987. A pedagogy of liberation: Dialogues on transforming education. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

3. Multiple Works by Same Author: Using "three em" (---) Dashes

The three-em dash serves the same purpose as "ditto" marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash (---) may replace the name after the first entry.

Each work is then organized in chronological order, by publication date. In the event of two works being published in the same year, add a lowercase letter following the date and alphabetize the entries by title.

Nesbitt, P.B. 1998a. Zoning laws and neighborhood crises. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.

---. 1998b. The role of neighborhood associations in urban development battles. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.

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