Survey Research

Annotated Bibliography

General Survey Information:

Allan, Graham, & Skinner, Chris (eds.) (1991). Handbook for Research Students in the Social Sciences. The Falmer Press: London.

This book is an excellent resource for anyone studying in the social sciences. It is not only well-written, but it is clear and concise with pertinent research information.

Alreck, P. L., & Settle, R. B. (1995). The survey research handbook: Guidelines and strategies for conducting a survey (2nd). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.

Provides thorough, effective survey research guidelines and strategies for sponsors, information seekers, and researchers. In a very accessible, but comprehensive, format, this handbook includes checklists and guidelists within the text, bringing together all the different techniques and principles, skills and activities to do a "really effective survey."

Babbie, E.R. (1973). Survey research methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

A comprehensive overview of survey methods. Solid basic textbook on the subject.

Babbie, E.R. (1995). The practice of social research (7th). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

The reference of choice for many social science courses. An excellent overview of question construction, sampling, and survey methodology. Includes a fairly detailed critique of an example questionnaire. Also includes a good overview of statistics related to sampling.

Belson, W.A. (1986). Validity in survey research. Brookvield, VT: Gower.

Emphasis on construction of survey instrument to account for validity.

Bourque, Linda B. & Fiedler, Eve P. (1995).How to Conduct Self-Administered and Mail Surveys. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks.

Contains current information on both self-administered and mail surveys. It is a great resource if you want to design your own survey; there are step-by-step methods for conducting these two types of surveys.

Bradburn, N.M., & Sudman, S. (1979). Improving interview method and questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

A good overview of polling. Includes setting up questionnaires and survey techniques.

Bradburn, N. M., & Sudman, S. (1988). Polls and Surveys: Understanding What They Tell Us. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

These veteran survey researchers answer questions about survey research that are commonly asked by the general public.

Campbell, Angus, A., ∧ Katona, Georgia. (1953). The Sample Survey: A Technique for Social Science Research. In Newcomb, Theodore M. (Ed). Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences. The Dryden Press: New York. p 14-55.

Includes information on all aspects of social science research. Some chapters in this book are outdated.

Converse, J. M., & Presser, S. (1986). Survey questions: Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

A very helpful little publication that addresses the key issues in question construction.

Dillman, D.A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys: The total design method. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

An overview of conducting telephone surveys.

Frey, James H., & Oishi, Sabine Mertens. (1995). How To Conduct Interviews By Telephone and In Person. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks.

This book has a step-by-step breakdown of how to conduct and design telephone and in person interview surveys.

Fowler, Floyd J., Jr. (1993). Survey Research Methods (2nd.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

An overview of survey research methods.

Fowler, F. J. Jr., & Mangione, T. W. (1990). Standardized survey interviewing: Minimizing interviewer-related error. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Another aspect of validity/reliability--interviewer error.

Fox, J. & Tracy, P. (1986). Randomized Response: A Method for Sensitive Surveys. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Authors provide a good discussion of response issues and methods of random response, especially for surveys with sensitive questions.

Frey, J. H. (1989). Survey research by telephone (2nd). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

General overview to telephone polling.

Glock, Charles (ed.) (1967). Survey Research in the Social Sciences. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Although fairly outdated, this collection of essays is useful in illustrating the somewhat different ways in which different disciplines regard and use survey research.

Hoinville, G. & Jowell, R. (1978). Survey research practice. London: Heinemann.

Practical overview of the methods and procedures of survey research, particularly discussing problems which may arise.

Hyman, H. H. (1972). Secondary Analysis of Sample Surveys. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

This source is particularly useful for anyone attempting to do secondary analysis. It offers a comprehensive overview of this research method, and couches it within the broader context of social scientific research.

Hyman, H. H. (1955). Survey design and analysis: Principles, cases, and procedures. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

According to Babbie, an oldie but goodie--a classic.

Jones, R. (1985). Research methods in the social and behavioral sciences. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.

General introduction to methodology. Helpful section on survey research, especially the discussion on sampling.

Kalton, G. (1983). Compensating for missing survey data. Ann Arbor, MI: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, the University of Michigan.

Addresses a problem often encountered in survey methodology.

Kish, L. (1965). Survey sampling. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Classic text on sampling theories and procedures.

Lake, C.C., & Harper, P. C. (1987). Public opinion polling: A handbook for public interest and citizen advocacy groups. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Clearly written easy to read and follow guide for planning, conducting and analyzing public surveys. Presents material in a step-by-step fashion, including checklists, potential pitfalls and real-world examples and samples.

Lauer, J.M., & Asher, J. W. (1988). Composition research: Empirical designs. New York: Oxford UP.

Excellent overview of a number of research methodologies applicable to composition studies. Includes a chapter on "Sampling and Surveys" and appendices on basic statistical methods and considerations.

Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J, & DeJong, C. R. (1990). Applied Social Research: Tool for the Human Services (2nd). Fort Worth, TX: Holt.

A good basic general research textbook which also includes sections on minority issues when doing research and the analysis of "available" or secondary data..

Rea, L. M., & Parker, R. A. (1992). Designing and conducting survey research: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Written for the social and behavioral sciences, public administration, and management.

Rossi, P.H., Wright, J.D., & Anderson, A.B. (eds.) (1983). Handbook of survey research. New York: Academic Press.

Handbook of quantitative studies in social relations.

Salant, P., & Dillman, D. A. (1994). How to conduct your own survey. New York: Wiley.,

A how-to book written for the social sciences.

Sayer, Andrew. (1992). Methods In Social Science: A Realist Approach. Routledge: London and New York.

Gives a different perspective on social science research.

Schuldt, Barbara A., & Totter, Jeff W. (1994, Winter). Electronic Mail vs. Mail Survey Response Rates. Marketing Research, 6. 36-39.

An article with specific information for electronic and mail surveys. Mainly a technical resource.

Schuman, H. & Presser, S. (1981). Questions and answers in attitude surveys. New York: Academic Press.

Detailed analysis of research question wording and question order effects on respondents.

Schwartz, N. & Seymour, S. (1996) Answering Questions: Methodology for Determining Cognitive and Communication Processes in Survey Research. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

Authors provide a summary of the latest research methods used for analyzing interpretive cognitive and communication processes in answering survey questions.

Seymour, S., Bradburn, N. & Schwartz, N. (1996) Thinking About Answers: The Application of Cognitive Processes to Survey Methodology. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

Explores the survey as a "social conversation" to investigate what answers mean in relation to how people understand the world and communicate.

Simon, J. (1969). Basic research methods in social science: The art of empirical investigation. New York: Random.

An excellent discussion of survey analysis. The definitions and descriptions begin from a fairly understandable (simple) starting point, then the discussion unfolds to cover some fairly complex interpretive strategies.

Singleton, R. Jr., et. al. (1988). Approaches to social research. New York: Oxford UP.

Has a very accessible chapter on sampling as well as a chapter on survey research.

Smith, Robert B. (Ed.) (1982). A Handbook of Social Science Methods, Volume 3. Prayer: New York.

There is a series of handbooks, each one with specific topics in social science research. A good technical resource, yet slightly dated.

Sul Lee, E., Forthofer, R.N.,& Lorimor, R.J. (1989). Analyzing complex survey data. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Details on the statistical analysis of survey data.

Singer, E., & Presser, S., eds. (1989). Survey research methods: A reader. Chicago: U of Chicago P.

The essays in this volume originally appeared in various issues of Public Opinion Quarterly.

Survey Research Center (1983). Interviewer's manual. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Very practical, step-by-step guide to conducting a survey and interview with lots of examples to illustrate the process.

Pearson, R.W., &Borouch, R.F. (Eds.) (1986). Survey Research Design: Towards a Better Understanding of Their Costs and Benefits. Springer-Verag: Berlin.

Explains, in a technical fashion, the financial aspects of research design. Somewhat of a cost-analysis book.

Weissberg, H.F., Krosnick , J.A., & Bowen, B.D. (1989). An introduction to survey research and data analysis. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.

A good discussion of basic analysis and statistics, particularly what statistical applications are appropriate for particular kinds of data.


Anderson, B., Puur, A., Silver, B., Soova, H., & Voormann, R. (1994). Use of a lottery as an incentive for survey participation: a pilot survey in Estonia. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 6, 64-71.

Looks at return results in a study that offers incentives, and recommends incentive use to increase response rates.

Bare, J. (1994). Truth about daily fluctuations in 1992 pre-election polls. Newspaper Research Journal, 15, 73-81.

Comparison of variations between daily poll results of the major polls used during the 1992 American Presidential race.

Chi, S. (1993). Computer knowledge, interests, attitudes, and uses among faculty in two teachers' universities in China. DAI-A, 54/12, 4412-4623.

Survey indicating a strong link between subject area and computer usage.

Cowans, J. (1994). Wielding the people: Opinion polls and the problem of legitimacy in France since 1944. DAI-A, 54/12, 4556-5027.

Study looks at how the advent of opinion polling has affected the legitimacy of French governments since World War II.

Crewe, I. (1993). A nation of liars? Opinion polls and the 1992 election. Journal of the Market Research Society, 35, 341-359.

Poses possible reasons the British polls were so wrong in predicting the outcomes of the 1992 national elections.

Daly, J., & Miller, M. (1975). The empirical development of an instrument to measure writing apprehension. Research in the teaching of English, 9 (3), 242-249.

Discussion of basics in question development and data analysis. Also includes some sample questions.

Daniell, S. (1993). Graduate teaching assistants' attitudes toward and responses to academic dishonesty. DAI-A,54/06, 2065- 2257.

Study explores the ethical and academic responses to cheating, using a large survey tool.

Mittal, B. (1994). Public assessment of TV advertising: Faint praise and harsh criticism. Journal of Advertising Research, 34, 35-53.

Results of a survey of Southern U.S. television viewers' perceptions of television advertisements.

Palmquist, M., & Young, R.E. (1992). Is writing a gift? The impact on students who believe it is. Reading empirical research studies: The rhetoric of research. Hayes et al. eds. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.

This chapter presents results of a study of student beliefs about writing. Includes sample questions and data analysis.

Serow, R. C., & Bitting, P. F. (1995). National service as educational reform: A survey of student attitudes. Journal of research and development in education, 28 (2), 87-90.

This study assessed college students' attitude toward a national service program.

Stouffer, Samuel. (1955). Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

This is a famous old survey worth examining. This survey examined the impact of McCarthyism on the attitudes of both the general public and community leaders, a asking whether the repression of the early 1950s affected support for civil liberties.

Wanta, W. & Hu, Y. (1993). The agenda-setting effects of international news coverage: An examination of differing news frames. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 5, 250-264.

Discusses results of Gallup polls on important problems in relation to the news coverage of international news.

Worcester, R. (1992). The performance of the political opinion polls in the 1992 British general election. Marketing and Research Today, 20, 256-263.

A critique of the use of polls in an attempt to predict voter actions.

Yamada, S, & Synodinos, N. (1994). Public opinion surveys in Japan. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 6, 118-138.

Explores trends in opinion poll usage, response rates, and refusals in Japanese polls from 1975 to 1990.


Bangura, A. K. (1992). The limitations of survey research methods in assessing the problem of minority student retention in higher education. San Francisco: Mellen Research UP.

Case study done at a Maryland university addressing an aspect of validity involving intercultural factors.

Bateson, N. (1984). Data construction in social surveys. London: Allen & Unwin.

Tackles the theory of the method (but not the methods of the method) of data construction. Deals with validity of the data by validizing the process of data construction.

Braverman, M. (1996). Sources of Survey Error: Implications for Evaluation Studies. New Directions for Evaluation: Advances in Survey Research,70, 17-28.

Looks at how evaluations using surveys can benefit from using survey design methods that reduce various survey errors.

Brehm, J. (1994). Stubbing our toes for a foot in the door? Prior contact, incentives and survey response. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 6, 45-63.

Considers whether incentives or the original contact letter lead to increased response rates.

Bulmer, M. (1977). Social-survey research. In M. Bulmer (ed.), Sociological research methods: An introduction. London: Macmillan.

The section includes discussions of pros and cons of survey research findings, inferences and interpreting relationships found in social-survey analysis.

Couper, M. & Groves, R. (1996). Household-Level Determinants of Survey Nonresponse. . New Directions for Evaluation: Advances in Survey Research, 70, 63-80.

Authors discuss their theory of survey participation. They believe that decisions to participate are based on two occurences: interactions with the interviewer, and the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents.

Couto, R. (1987). Participatory research: Methodology and critique. Clinical Sociology Review, 5, 83-90.

Criticism of survey research. Addresses knowledge/power/change issues through the critique.

Dillman, D., Sangster, R., Tarnai, J., & Rockwood, T. (1996) Understanding Differences in People's Answers to Telephone and Mail Surveys. New Directions for Evaluation: Advances in Survey Research, 70, 45-62.

Explores the issue of differences in respondents' answers in telephone and mail surveys, which can affect a survey's results.

Esaiasson, P. & Granberg, D. (1993). Hidden negativism: Evaluation of Swedish parties and their leaders under different survey methods. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 5, 265-277.

Compares varying results of mailed questionnaires vs. telephone and personal interviews. Findings indicate methodology affected results.

Guastello, S. & Rieke, M. (1991). A review and critique of honesty test research. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 501-523.

Looks at the use of honesty, or integrity, testing to predict theft by employees, questioning further use of the tests due to extremely low validity. Social and legal implications are also considered.

Hamilton, R. (1991). Work and leisure: On the reporting of poll results. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55, 347-356.

Looks at methodology changes that affected reports of results in the Harris poll on American Leisure.

Juster, F. & Stanford, F. (1991). Comment on work and leisure: On reporting of poll results. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55, 357-359.

Rebuttal of the Hamilton essay, cited above. The rebuttal is based upon statistical interpretation methods used in the cited survey.

Krosnick, J., Narayan, S., & Smith, W. (1996). Satisficing in Surveys: Initial Evidence. New Directions in Evaluation: Advances in Survey Research, 70, 29-44.

Authors discuss "satisficing," a cognitive approach to survey response, which they believe helps researchers understand how survey respondents arrive at their answers.

Lindsey, J.K. (1973). Inferences from sociological survey data: A unified approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Examines the statistical analysis of survey data.

Morgan, F. (1990). Judicial standards for survey research: An update and guidelines. Journal of Marketing, 54, 59-70.

Looks at legal use of survey information as defined and limited in recent cases. Excellent definitions.

Pottick, K. (1990). Testing the underclass concept by surveying attitudes and behavior. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 17, 117-125.

Review of definitional tests constructed to define "underclass."

Rohme, N. (1992). The state of the art of public opinion polling worldwide. Marketing and Research Today, 20, 264-271.

A quick review of the use of polling in several countries, concluding that the use of polling is on the rise worldwide.

Sabatelli, R. (1988). Measurement issues in marital research: A review and critique of contemporary survey instruments. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 891-915.

Examines issues of methodology.

Schriesheim, C. A.,& Denisi, A. S. (1980). Item Presentation as an Influence on Questionnaire Validity: A Field Experiment. Educational-and-Psychological-Measurement; 40 (1), 175-82.

Two types of questionnaire formats measuring leadership variables were examined: one with items measuring the same dimensions grouped together and the second with items measuring the same dimensions distributed randomly. The random condition showed superior validity.

Smith, T. (1990). "A critique of the Kinsey Institute/Roper organization national sex knowledge survey." Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 55, 449-457.

Questions validity of the survey based upon question selection and response interpretations. A rejoinder follows, defending the poll.

Smith, Tom W. (1990). "The First Straw? A Study of the Origins of Election Polls," Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 54 (Spring: 21-36).

This article offers a look at the early history of American political polling, with special attention to media reactions to the polls. This is an interesting source for anyone interested in the ethical issues surrounding polling and survey.

Sniderman, P. (1986). Reflections on American racism. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 173-187.

Rebuttal of critique of racism research. Addresses issues of bias and motive attribution.

Stanfield, J. H. II, & Dennis, R. M., eds (1993). Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The contributions in this volume examine the array of methods used in quantitative, qualitative, and comparative and historical research to show how research sensitive to ethnic issues can best be conducted.

Stapel, J. (1993). Public opinion polling: Some perspectives in response to 'critical perspectives.' International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 5, 193-194.

Discussion of the moral power of polling results.

Wentland, E. J., & Smith, K. W. (1993). Survey responses: An evaluation of their validity. San Diego: Academic Press.

Reviews and analyzes data from studies that have, through the use of external criteria, assessed the validity of individuals' responses to questions concerning personal characteristics and behavior in a wide variety of areas.

Williams, R. M., Jr. (1989). "The American Soldier: An Assessment, Several Wars Later." Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 53 (Summer: 155-174).

One of the classic studies in the history of survey research is reviewed by one of its authors.

Secondary Analysis:

Jolliffe, F.R. (1986). Survey Design and Analysis. Ellis Horwood Limited: Chichester.

Information about survey design as well as secondary analysis of surveys.

Kiecolt, K. J., & Nathan, L. E. (1985). Secondary analysis of survey data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Discussion of how to use previously collected survey data to answer a new research question.

Monette, D. R., Sullivan, T. J, & DeJong, C. R. (1990). Analysis of available data. In Applied Social Research: Tool for the Human Services (2nd ed., pp. 202-230). Fort Worth, TX: Holt.

Gives some existing sources for statistical data as well as discussing ways in which to use it.

Rubin, A. (1988). Secondary analyses. In R. M. Grinnell, Jr. (Ed.), Social work research and evaluation. (3rd ed., pp. 323-341). Itasca, IL: Peacock.

Chapter discusses inductive and deductive processes in relation to research designs using secondary data. It also discusses methodological issues and presents a case example.

Dale, A., Arber, S., & Procter, M. (1988). Doing Secondary Analysis. London: Unwin Hyman.

A whole book about how to do secondary analysis.

Electronic Surveys:

Carr, H. H. (1991). Is using computer-based questionnaires better than using paper? Journal of Systems Management September, 19, 37.

Reference from Thach.

Dunnington, Richard A. (1993). New methods and technologies in the organizational survey process. American Behavioral Scientist, 36 (4), 512-30.

Asserts that three decades of technological advancements in communications and computer techhnology have transformed, if not revolutionized, organizational survey use and potential.

Goree, C. & Marszalek, J. (1995). Electronic Surveys: Ethical Issues for Researchers. The College Student Affairs Journal, 15 (1), 75-79.

Explores how the use of electronic surveys challenge existing ethical standards of survey research, and how that researchers need to be aware of these new ethical issues.

Hsu, J. (1995). The Development of Electronic Surveys: A Computer Language-Based Method. The Electronic Library, 13 (3), 195-201.

Discusses the need for a markup language method to properly support the creation of survey questionnaires.

Kiesler, S. & Sproull, L. S. (1986). Response effects in the electronic survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 402-13.

Reference from Thach.

Opperman, M. (1995) E-Mail Surveys--Potentials and Pitfalls. Marketing Research, 7 (3), 29-33.

A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using E-Mail surveys.

Sproull, L. S. (1986). Using electronic mail for data collection in organizational research. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 159-69.

Reference from Thach.

Synodinos, N. E., & Brennan, J. M. (1988). Computer interactive interviewing in survey research. Psychology & Marketing, 5(2), 117-137.

Reference from Thach.

Thach, Liz. (1995). Using electronic mail to conduct survey research. Educational Technology, 35, 27-31.

A review of the literature on the topic of survey research via electronic mail concentrating on the key issues in design, implementation, and response using this medium.

Walsh, J. P., Kiesler, S., Sproull, L. S., & Hesse, B. W. (1992). Self-selected and randomly selected respondents in a computer network survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56, 241-244.

Reference from Thach.

Further Investigation

Bery, David N., & Smith , Kenwyn K. (eds.) (1988). The Self in Social Inquiry: Researching Methods. Sage Publications: Newbury Park.

Has some ethical issues about the role of researcher in social science research.

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