Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

Audio and Video Recordings

1. Sound or Musical Recordings

Note: The elements in the following format (particularly composer and director) may be rearranged to suit your particular purposes. See Chicago Manual of Style for more examples.

References List Format:
Give the composer and title of the recording, the performers and conductor, the label and identifying number.

Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Ilyich. Symphony No. 5, Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Daniele Gatti. Harmonia Mundi, MU907381, compact disc.


2. Dramatic Performance Recordings

References List Format:
List the playwright (last name first), the title of the recording (in italics), director’s name, the performers’ or artists’ names, (first names first), the label and identifying number.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Directed by Howerd Sackler. Performed by Frank Silvera, Celia Johnson, Cyril Cusack, Anna Massey, and others. Caedmon CDG 225. Audiotape.


3. Poetry and Prose Recordings

References List Format:
List the poet or prose writer (last name first), the recording title (in italics), the name of the reader (first name first) or the phrase “Read by Author”, the label and the recording number. 

Eliot, T.S. Poems and Choruses. Read by author. Caedmon TC1045. Record album.


4. Lecture Recordings

References List Format:
List the lecture recorder (last name first), the year, the recording title (in italics), a brief description of the lecture, the phrase “presented by” followed by the name of the lecturer. Include the institution name, the location, the month and year of the lecture and any publication information (if applicable). 

Nesbitt, L.M. 1995. Censorship. Audiotape of a lecture presented by Louann Reid at Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO, October 1995.


5. Slides

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

References List Format:
Slide Show Producer-Last Name first. Year. Slide Show Title-in italics. Place of Production: Production Company Name. Slides.

Nesbitt, John. 1991. Europe by train. Knoxville, TN: Fabricated Production Company. Slides.


6. Film or Video Recording

Note: The variety of visual and audiovisual materials now used by writers makes general formatting rules impossible. In theses cases a description of the material, the name of the individual responsible for the material, and the information necessary to retrieve it should be included.

References List Format:
Provide the title first, the name of the director, the company, the year it was filmed, the medium (film, videocassette, DVD). 

Michael Jackson’s This Is It. Directed by Kenny Ortega. 2009 (2009; Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures, 2010) DVD.


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