Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

Digital Sources

All digital sources should include either a publication date, a revision or “last modified” date, or an access date. After the date, include a DOI (digital object identifier) or, if the source does not have a DOI, a stable URL. For a source accessed through a database, include the name of the database and any number assigned to the source.

1. Online Computer Services

References List Format:
List the author or editor (last name first). List the title (italicize if it is a book  title), the print publication information, the online publication information (including the computer service name), and finish with the accession number. 

Note: The following source was obtained through the computer service "Dialog."

Wever, Katharine. 1998. In a painting, Gershwin packed the house. New York Times 30 August, late ed.: sec. 2, p. 30. Dialog, New York Times Fulltext 03819774.


2. Article from an Online Journal

Fields, Gary. “Palestinian Landscape in a ‘Not-too-Distant-Mirror,’” Journal of Historical Sociology 23, no. 2 (June 2010). doi: 10.111/j.1467-6443.2010.01373.x.


3. Article from an Online Database

Pes, Alessandro. “Becoming Imperialist: Italian Colonies in Fascist Textbooks for Primary Schools.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 18, no. 5 (2013): 599-614. Academic Search Premier (92017350), doi: 10.1080/1354571X.2013.839519.

4. Article in an Online Magazine

Seigel, Jacob. “The History and Logic of Military Ultimatums, From Suez to Crimea.” The Daily Beast, March 3, 2014, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/03/03/the-history-and-logic-of-military-ultimatums-from-suez-to-crimea.html.


5. Article from a Nonperiodical Websit

Mendelson, Abby. “Roberto Clemente: A Form of Punishment.” Pittsburg Pirates. MLB.com. May 24, 2013. http://mlb.mlb.com/pit/history/pit_clemente.jsp.


6. Article from an Online Book

Ruskin, Gary. Spooky Business: Corporate Espionage against Nonprofit Organizations. Washington, DC: Essential Information, 2013. http://www.corporatepolicy.org/spookybusiness.pdf.


7. Article Posted on a Wiki

“Native Americans,” Davis Wiki, accessed March 4, 2014. http://daviswiki.org/Native-Americans.


8. Citing an Entire Blog

References List Format:
Put the word “blog” in parentheses following the name of the blog, if it is not already part of the name. If the blog is part of a larger publication, include the name of the publication as well.

McNamara, Pat. McNamara’s Blog: Musings of a Catholic Church Historian from Queens, New York. http://patheos.com/blogs/mcnamarasblog/.


9. Citing an Entry or Comment on a Blog

References List Format:
Put the word “blog” in parentheses following the name of the blog, if it is not already part of the name. If the blog is part of a larger publication, include the name of the publication as well.

Winchell, Donna Haisty. “In Arizona, Is It Ethics or Economics?” Argument and the Headlines (blog). Bits: Ideas for Teaching Composition, March 3, 2014, http://blogs.bedfordstmartins.com/bits/author/donnaonbitsgmail-com/.


10. Citing an E-mail Message

References List Format:
Chicago recommends that personal communication, including email, not be included in the bibliography, although it can be cited in your text. Note that the Chicago Manual prefers the hyphenated version of the word “e-mail.”

Brysa, H. Levy, e-mail message to author, January 4, 2014


10. Citing an Online Posting to a Discussion Group

References List Format:
Like email, online postings are considered personal communication and are therefore listed in the text only, not in the bibliography. Include a URL for archived postings.

Alessandro, Busà to URBANTH-L discussion group, December 1, 2009, http://lists.cc.ysu.edu/pipermail/urbanth-l/2009-December/002761.html.


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