Reliability and Validity

Annotated Bibliography

American Psychological Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Author.

This work on focuses on reliability, validity and the standards that testers need to achieve in order to ensure accuracy.

Babbie, E.R. & Huitt, R.E. (1979). The practice of social research 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

An overview of social research and its applications.

Beauchamp, T. L., Faden, R.R., Wallace, Jr., R.J. & Walters, L. (1982). Ethical issues in social science research. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

A systematic overview of ethical issues in Social Science Research written by researchers with firsthand familiarity with the situations and problems researchers face in their work. This book raises several questions of how reliability and validity can be affected by ethics.

Borman, K.M. et al. (1986). Ethnographic and qualitative research design and why it doesn't work. American behavioral scientist 30, 42-57.

The authors pose questions concerning threats to qualitative research and suggest solutions.

Bowen, K. A. (1996, Oct. 12). The sin of omission -punishable by death to internal validity: An argument for integration of quantitative research methods to strengthen internal validity. Available:

An entire Web site that examines the merits of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies through triangulation. The author argues that improving the internal validity of social science will be the result of such a union.

Brinberg, D. & McGrath, J.E. (1985). Validity and the research process. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

The authors investigate validity as value and propose the Validity Network Schema, a process by which researchers can infuse validity into their research.

Bussières, J-F. (1996, Oct.12). Reliability and validity of information provided by museum Web sites. Available:

This Web page examines the validity of museum Web sites which calls into question the validity of Web-based resources in general. Addresses the issue that all Websites should be examined with skepticism about the validity of the information contained within them.

Campbell, D. T. & Stanley, J.C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

An overview of experimental research that includes pre-experimental designs, controls for internal validity, and tables listing sources of invalidity in quasi-experimental designs. Reference list and examples.

Carmines, E. G. & Zeller, R.A. (1991). Reliability and validity assessment. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

An introduction to research methodology that includes classical test theory, validity, and methods of assessing reliability.

Carroll, K. M. (1995). Methodological issues and problems in the assessment of substance use. Psychological Assessment, Sep. 7 n3, 349-58.

Discusses methodological issues in research involving the assessment of substance abuse. Introduces strategies for avoiding problems with the reliability and validity of methods.

Connelly, F. M. & Clandinin, D.J. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher 19:5, 2-12.

A survey of narrative inquiry that outlines criteria, methods, and writing forms. It includes a discussion of risks and dangers in narrative studies, as well as a research agenda for curricula and classroom studies.

De Witt, P.E.. (1995, July 3). On a screen near you: Cyberporn. Time, 38-45.

This is an exhaustive Carnegie Mellon study of online pornography by Marty Rimm, electrical engineering student.

Fink, A., ed. (1995). The survey Handbook, v.1.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

A guide to survey; this is the first in a series referred to as the "survey kit". It includes bibliograpgical references. Addresses survey design, analysis, reporting surveys and how to measure the validity and reliability of surveys.

Fink, A., ed. (1995). How to measure survey reliability and validity v. 7. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This volume seeks to select and apply reliability criteria and select and apply validity criteria. The fundamental principles of scaling and scoring are considered.

Godwin, M. (1995, July). JournoPorn, dissection of the Time article. Available:

A detailed critique of Time magazine's Cyberporn, outlining flaws of methodology as well as exploring the underlying assumptions of the article.

Hambleton, R.K. & Zaal, J.N., eds. (1991). Advances in educational and psychological testing. Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Information on the concepts of reliability and validity in psychology and education.

Harnish, D.L. (1992). Human judgment and the logic of evidence: A critical examination of research methods in special education transition literature. In D.L. Harnish et al. eds., Selected readings in transition.

This article investigates threats to validity in special education research.

Haynes, N. M. (1995). How skewed is 'the bell curve'? Book Product Reviews. 1-24.

This paper claims that R.J. Herrnstein and C. Murray's The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life does not have scientific merit and claims that the bell curve is an unreliable measure of intelligence.

Healey, J. F. (1993). Statistics: A tool for social research, 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.

Inferential statistics, measures of association, and multivariate techniques in statistical analysis for social scientists are addressed.

Helberg, C. (1996, Oct.12). Pitfalls of data analysis (or how to avoid lies and damned lies). Available: http//maddog/

A discussion of things researchers often overlook in their data analysis and how statistics are often used to skew reliability and validity for the researchers purposes.

Hoffman, D. L. and Novak, T.P. (1995, July). A detailed critique of the Time article: Cyberporn. Available:

A methodological critique of the Time article that uncovers some of the fundamental flaws in the statistics and the conclusions made by De Witt.

Huitt, William G. (1998). Internal and External Validity.

A Web document addressing key issues of external and internal validity.

Jones, J. E. & Bearley, W.L. (1996, Oct 12). Reliability and validity of training instruments. Organizational Universe Systems. Available:

The authors discuss the reliability and validity of training design in a business setting. Basic terms are defined and examples provided.

Cultural Anthropology Methods Journal. (1996, Oct. 12). Available:

An online journal containing articles on the practical application of research methods when conducting qualitative and quantitative research. Reliability and validity are addressed throughout.

Kirk, J. & Miller, M. M. (1986). Reliability and validity in qualitative research. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

This text describes objectivity in qualitative research by focusing on the issues of validity and reliability in terms of their limitations and applicability in the social and natural sciences.

Krakower, J. & Niwa, S. (1985). An assessment of validity and reliability of the institutinal perfarmance survey. Boulder, CO: National center for higher education management systems.

Educational surveys and higher education research and the efeectiveness of organization.

Lauer, J. M. & Asher, J.W. (1988). Composition Research. New York: Oxford University Press.

A discussion of empirical designs in the context of composition research as a whole.

Laurent, J. et al. (1992, Mar.) Review of validity research on the stanford-binet intelligence scale: 4th Ed. Psychological Assessment. 102-112.

This paper looks at the results of construct and criterion- related validity studies to determine if the SB:FE is a valid measure of intelligence.

LeCompte, M. D., Millroy, W.L., & Preissle, J. eds. (1992). The handbook of qualitative research in education. San Diego: Academic Press.

A compilation of the range of methodological and theoretical qualitative inquiry in the human sciences and education research. Numerous contributing authors apply their expertise to discussing a wide variety of issues pertaining to educational and humanities research as well as suggestions about how to deal with problems when conducting research.

McDowell, I. & Newell, C. (1987). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press.

This gives a variety of examples of health measurement techniques and scales and discusses the validity and reliability of important health measures.

Meeks, B. (1995, July). Muckraker: How Time failed. Available:

A step-by-step outline of the events which took place during the researching, writing, and negotiating of the Time article of 3 July, 1995 titled: On A Screen Near You: Cyberporn.

Merriam, S. B. (1995). What can you tell from an N of 1?: Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. Journal of Lifelong Learning v4, 51-60.

Addresses issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research for education. Discusses philosophical assumptions underlying the concepts of internal validity, reliability, and external validity or generalizability. Presents strategies for ensuring rigor and trustworthiness when conducting qualitative research.

Morris, L.L, Fitzgibbon, C.T., & Lindheim, E. (1987). How to measure performance and use tests. In J.L. Herman (Ed.), Program evaluation kit (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Discussion of reliability and validity as it pertyains to measuring students' performance.

Murray, S., et al. (1979, April). Technical issues as threats to internal validity of experimental and quasi-experimental designs. San Francisco: University of California. 8-12.

(From Yang et al. bibliography--unavailable as of this writing.)

Russ-Eft, D. F. (1980). Validity and reliability in survey research. American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences August, 227 151.

An investigation of validity and reliability in survey research with and overview of the concepts of reliability and validity. Specific procedures for measuring sources of error are suggested as well as general suggestions for improving the reliability and validity of survey data. A extensive annotated bibliography is provided.

Ryser, G. R. (1994). Developing reliable and valid authentic assessments for the classroom: Is it possible? Journal of Secondary Gifted Education Fall, v6 n1, 62-66.

Defines the meanings of reliability and validity as they apply to standardized measures of classroom assessment. This article defines reliability as scorability and stability and validity is seen as students' ability to use knowledge authentically in the field.

Schmidt, W., et al. (1982). Validity as a variable: Can the same certification test be valid for all students? Institute for Research on Teaching July, ED 227 151.

A technical report that presents specific criteria for judging content, instructional and curricular validity as related to certification tests in education.

Scholfield, P. (1995). Quantifying language. A researcher's and teacher's guide to gathering language data and reducing it to figures. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

A guide to categorizing, measuring, testing, and assessing aspects of language. A source for language-related practitioners and researchers in conjunction with other resources on research methods and statistics. Questions of reliability, and validity are also explored.

Scriven, M. (1993). Hard-Won Lessons in Program Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

A common sense approach for evaluating the validity of various educational programs and how to address specific issues facing evaluators.

Shou, P. (1993, Jan.). The singer loomis inventory of personality: A review and critique. [Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association.]

Evidence for reliability and validity are reviewed. A summary evaluation suggests that SLIP (developed by two Jungian analysts to allow examination of personality from the perspective of Jung's typology) appears to be a useful tool for educators and counselors.

Sutton, L.R. (1992). Community college teacher evaluation instrument: A reliability and validity study. Diss. Colorado State University.

Studies of reliability and validity in occupational and educational research.

Thompson, B. & Daniel, L.G. (1996, Oct.). Seminal readings on reliability and validity: A "hit parade" bibliography. Educational and psychological measurement v. 56, 741-745.

Editorial board members of Educational and Psychological Measurement generated bibliography of definitive publications of measurement research. Many articles are directly related to reliability and validity.

Thompson, E. Y., et al. (1995). Overview of qualitative research. Diss. Colorado State University.

A discussion of strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research and its evolution and adaptation. Appendices and annotated bibliography.

Traver, C. et al. (1995). Case Study. Diss. Colorado State University.

This presentation gives an overview of case study research, providing definitions and a brief history and explanation of how to design research.

Trochim, William M. K. (1996) External validity. (. Available:

A comprehensive treatment of external validity found in William Trochim's online text about research methods and issues.

Trochim, William M. K. (1996) Introduction to validity. (. Available: h

An introduction to validity found in William Trochim's online text about research methods and issues.

Trochim, William M. K. (1996) Reliability. (. Available:

A comprehensive treatment of reliability found in William Trochim's online text about research methods and issues.

Validity. (1996, Oct. 12). Available:

A source for definitions of various forms and types of reliability and validity.

Vinsonhaler, J. F., et al. (1983, July). Improving diagnostic reliability in reading through training. Institute for Research on Teaching ED 237 934.

This technical report investigates the practical application of a program intended to improve the diagnoses of reading deficient students. Here, reliability is assumed and a pragmatic answer to a specific educational problem is suggested as a result.

Wentland, E. J. & Smith, K.W. (1993). Survey responses: An evaluation of their validity. San Diego: Academic Press.

This book looks at the factors affecting response validity (or the accuracy of self-reports in surveys) and provides several examples with varying accuracy levels.

Wiget, A. (1996). Father juan greyrobe: Reconstructing tradition histories, and the reliability and validity of uncorroborated oral tradition. Ethnohistory 43:3, 459-482.

This paper presents a convincing argument for the validity of oral histories in ethnographic research where at least some of the evidence can be corroborated through written records.

Yang, G. H., et al. (1995). Experimental and quasi-experimental educational research. Diss. Colorado State University.

This discussion defines experimentation and considers the rhetorical issues and advantages and disadvantages of experimental research. Annotated bibliography.

Yarroch, W. L. (1991, Sept.). The Implications of content versus validity on science tests. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 619-629.

The use of content validity as the primary assurance of the measurement accuracy for science assessment examinations is questioned. An alternative accuracy measure, item validity, is proposed to look at qualitative comparisons between different factors.

Yin, R. K. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods. London: Sage Publications.

This book discusses the design process of case study research, including collection of evidence, composing the case study report, and designing single and multiple case studies.


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