Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

Examples of In-Text Formatting Rules

Citing an Entire Source

When citing an entire work, document the last name of the author and the year of publication. No page numbers are necessary. The citation format will vary according to whether the author's name is mentioned in the sentence being cited.


1. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Not Included in Preceding Sentence

Format: Cite both the last name of the author and the publication date. The citation is placed in parentheses directly following the information being cited. When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). There is a space, not a comma, between the author's name and the date.

Example:

In a recent study of sustainable management techniques (Myers 1997)...


2. Citing an Entire Source: Author Name Included in Preceding Sentence

Format: When the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, you may omit this name from the parentheses to avoid redundancy, using only the date. The date (in parentheses) should follow the author's name. In cases where the source itself is being cited rather than the author, the parentheses around the date may be omitted.

Example One:

Myers (1997) compared sustainable management techniques...

Example Two:

In Myers 1997, sustainable management techniques are compared to more conventional practices.

Citing Part of a Source

When citing a specific part of a source, document the last name of the author, the year of publication and the page numbers (or chapter, section, line numbers, etc.) where the cited material may be found.


3. Citing Part of a Source

Format: When the citation falls at the end of the sentence, the parenthetical note precedes the end punctuation (period). One space separates the author's name from the date, and one comma separates the date from the page number (or chapter, etc.). Page abbreviations like "p." or "pp." are used only when their absence is likely to cause confusion. Abbreviations such as sec. (section), fig. (figure), app. (appendix), etc., should be used, however.

Example:

Because of the underdevelopment of the racial theme, Bright Skin was said to have "failed to feed the growing appetite for anti-establishment tracts while at the same time offering no new insights into the nature of Blue Brook Plantation" (Landess 1976, 121).

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