Citation Guide: Chicago Manual of Style (Author/Date System)

Citing Sources within Your Document

The CMS Author/Date in-text citation system follows a parenthetical format rather than the superscripted numbers found in the CMS Notes system. Much like the APA, it emphasizes authors and dates of publication, both of which are important benchmarks denoting relevancy and validity in the social and the natural sciences.

In some cases, chapters, paragraphs and page numbers are required. Regardless of contents, the parenthetic citation should immediately follow the cited material within a sentence and before the period if it is at the end of the sentence. In the case of quoted material, the citation is placed between the final quotation mark and the period at the end of the sentence.

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Introduction