Citation Guide: American Psychological Association (APA)

References- Other Sources

Note: Whenever anything is retrieved online or electronically, the reference entry should end with "Retrieved from" and the location information, i.e. "http://xxx", or a DOI.  For more information see References- electronic/online .

Basic Format for Citing a Cartoon or Comic Strip

Cartoons or comic strips can appear in newspapers, magazines, or in book format. If the cartoon appears in a book, use the standard book format.  If it appears in a newspaper or magazine, use the format for a newspaper or magazine. 

Newspaper

Artist, A. A. (date). Title of cartoon/comic strip. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx.

Morin, J. (2008, November 5). "Golly, Dick". The Denver Post, p. 23B.

Basic Format for Citing Conferences and Meetings

Information from conferences and meetings can be published, either in book form or as a regular occurring periodical.  When this is the case, the reference should follow the format for a book or periodical.  If retrieved electronically, the reference should include "Retrieved from...." with the DOI or "http://xxx.xxx" as the final piece of the reference entry.  If, however, the information is not formally published, follow the templates below.

Contributor B. B., & Contributor C. C. (date). Title of contribution. In D. D. Chairperson (Chair), Title of conference/symposium. Conference/Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Anderson, J. R., & Powell, M. (2011, November 20). The history of the American Indian caucus.  In S. Parks (Chair), NCTE centennial writing and working for change founders panel, part 2: 1980's and 1990's. Meeting conducted at 101st Annual Convention of NCTE, Chicago, IL.

Paper presentation or Poster Session:

Presenter E. E. (date). Title of paper or poster. Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Goff, B. F., & Goodrich, D. C. (1998, June). Integrated observations of semi-arid land-surface-atmosphere interactions. Poster session presented at a special symposium of the American Meteorological Society, San Diego, CA.

Basic Format for Citing Data Sets, Software, Measurement Instruments, and Apparatus

It is unnecessary to create a reference entry for standard software and programming languages (Microsoft Word or Excel, Java, Adobe Photoshop, SAS or SPSS). Simply give the name and the version number of the software in text.  Reference entries are needed, however, for specialized software or computer programs with only limited distribution.

Software

Rightsholder, F. F. (year). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer. 

REA Testware (2011). Praxis II English subject assessments (2nd edition) [CD]. Piscataway, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Data set 

Author, G. G. or Organization. (year). Title of data set [Data set]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxx

Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2008 Post-election national survey of Latinos [Data set]. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/category/datasets/ 

 

 

Basic Format for Citing an Entry in a Dictionary or an Encyclopedia [Including a Wiki]

Begin your citation with the name of the author or, if the entry is unsigned, the title of the entry. Proceed with the date, the entry title (if not already given), the title of the reference work, the edition number, and the pages. If the contents of the reference work are arranged alphabetically, omit the volume and page numbers. If the entry was found online, provide the DOI or URL. Because the material on a wiki is likely to change, include the retrieval date as well.

Example(s):

Ray, S. & Schwartz, H. (2016). Globalization. In Encyclopedia of post-colonial studies. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

House music. (2015). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music

 

Basic Format for Citing an Entry in a Dictionary or an Encyclopedia [Including a Wiki]

Begin your citation with the name of the author or, if the entry is unsigned, the title of the entry. Proceed with the date, the entry title (if not already given), the title of the reference work, the edition number, and the pages. If the contents of the reference work are arranged alphabetically, omit the volume and page numbers. If the entry was found online, provide the DOI or URL. Because the material on a wiki is likely to change, include the retrieval date as well.

Example(s):

Ray, S. & Schwartz, H. (2016). Globalization. In Encyclopedia of post-colonial studies. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Basic Format for Citing a Brochure or Pamphlet

Format the entry as you would a book. Insert “n.d.” if there is no publication date.

Example(s):

UNESCO. (n.d). The world heritage brochure. Paris: Author Press.

 

Interviews

How interviews are cited and listed in the references depends on the original format of the interview. If the interview is a 3rd party interview (not conducted by you), and is recoverable (it is published or recorded and archived and can be retrieved by someone else), then use the appropriate reference format, i.e. video, sound recording, article, etc.

If the interview was conducted by you for information purposes and that person agrees to be identified as a source, then it falls under personal communication and is cited in-text only.  A reference entry is not required for it because it cannot be retrieved.

If the interview involved a research participant no citation is necessary.  Do not cite in-text or list as a reference entry as this would constitute a breach in confidentiality.

 

Basic Format for Citing Unpublished Survey Data

Give the title of the survey first, followed by the date the survey was distributed, and the words “Unpublished raw data.”

Example(s):

The University of Iowa graduation exit survey. (2012, April 22). Unpublished raw data.

 

Basic Format for Citing an Unpublished Letter

Treat unpublished letters as personal communications, and include them in your text only. Do not cite unpublished letters in your references list.

 

Basic Format for Citing a Lecture or Public Address

Provide the  name of the speaker, followed by the full date of the presentation and the title of the speech if there is one. End the entry with a brief description of the event and its location.

Example(s):

Wolin, P. (2016, May 3). Descendants of light: American photographers of Jewish ancestry. 92nd Street Y, New York, NY.

 

Map or Chart

Organization producing item (Cartographer). (year). Title of map [Type of map]. Location: Publisher.

American Automobile Association (Cartographer). (1992). Chicago and vicinity [Road map]. Heathrow, FL: AAA.

If retrieved online

Organization producing item (Cartographer). (year). Title of map [Type of map]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxx

National Geographic (Cartographer). (1968). Atlantic Ocean Floor Map 1968 [Topographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.maps.com/map.aspx?nav=MS&cid=22,1529,1541&pid=15757

 

Work of Visual Art

Artist, U. (year). Title of piece [Identify type of art: sculpture, photograph, etc]. Location viewed.

Van Gogh, V. (1889). Sunflowers [Oil on canvas]. Retrieved from http://www.vangoghmuseum.nl/vgm/index.jsp?page=3503&lang=en

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