Citation Guide: American Psychological Association (APA)

References- Digital and Media

Media Sources

 

Basic Format for a Citing a Film or Video Recording

List the director and producer (if available), the date of release, the title, the medium in square brackets (“Motion picture,” “DVD,” or “Blu-Ray disc”), the country where the film was made, and the studio or distributor.

Example(s):

Nichols, J. (Director). (2016). Loving [Motion picture]. United States: Focus Features.

 

Basic Format for a Citing a Television or Radio Program

List the director, writer, producer, host, or reporter (if available); the broadcast date; the title, followed by “Television” or “Radio” and “broadcast” or “series episode” in square brackets; the name of the series; and the city and name of the broadcaster.

Example(s):

Bee, S. (Host). 2016, February 15). Episode 2 [Television series episode]. In Full Frontal with Samantha Bee. Atlanta, GA TBS.

 

Basic Format for a Citing a Sound Recording

List the author of the song; the date; the song title, followed by “On” and the recording title in italics; the medium in square brackets; and the production data. If the song was recorded by an artist other than the author, add “Recorded by” plus the artist’s name in square brackets after the song title and the recording year in parentheses after the production data.

Example(s):

Clapton, E. (2016). Catch the blues. On I still do [CD]. Encinitas, CA: Bushbranch/Surfdog Records.

 

Digital Sources

 

Basic Format for Citing a Web Document

For a stand-alone Web source such as a report, or a section within a larger website, cite as much of the following information as possible: author, publication date, document title, and URL. If the content is likely to be changed or updated, include your retrieval date.

Example(s):

Matz, M. (2016, March 24). Five reasons to protect the Cherokee National Forest. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/.

 

Basic Format for Citing an E-mail Message or Real-Time Communication

Because e-mail messages and real-time communications, such as text messages, are difficult or impossible for you readers to retrieve, APA does not recommend including them in your references list. You should treat them as personal communication and cite them parenthetically in your text.

 

Basic Format for Citing a Message Posted to a Newsgroup, Electronic Mailing List, or Online Discussion Forum

List the author, posting date, and the title of the post or message subject line. Include a description of the message or post in square brackets. End with the URL where the archived message can be retrieved. Include the name of the group, list, or forum if it is not part of the URL.

Example(s):

Nelms, J. (2016, January 14). Re: Evaluating writing faculty [Online discussion list post]. Retrieved from https://lists.asu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A1=ind1601&L=WPA-L#50

 

Basic Format for Citing a Blog Post or Comment

To cite an entry on a blog, give the author (or screen name, if available), the date the material was posted, and the title of the entry. Include the description “Blog post” or “Blog comment” in square brackets and provide the URL.

Example(s):

Wade, L. (2016, March 10). Does your vote affect public policy? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2016/03/10/does-your-vote-affect-public-policy/.

 

Basic Format for Citing a Facebook Post

Start with the author’s name exactly as it appears and the date of the post. Give the first few words of the post in place of the title, and include the label “Facebook post” in square brackets. Include the retrieval date and the URL. If the Facebook page is private and will not be accessible to readers, cite it as you would cite personal communication within the body of your text, not in the reference list.

Example(s):

Macmillan Learning. (2016, April 28). College readiness and remediation go hand in hand [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/MacmillanLearn/

 

Basic Format for Citing a Twitter Post

Use the author’s real name, if possible, followed by the screen name in brackets. Include the entire tweet in place of the title, followed by the label “Tweet” in square brackets. End with the URL.

Example(s):

Applebaum, Y. (2016, March 29). I can say as a historian, with a fair amount of confidence, that scholars will certainly mine social media in the future – they already are [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/YApplebaum/status/714822912172285952

 

Basic Format for Citing a Podcast

Give the name of the producer, the date of the podcast, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Blumberg, A. (Host). (2015, November 15). The Secret Formula. StartUp [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://gimletmedia.com/episode/16-the-secret-formula/

 

Basic Format for Citing an Online Video

Give the name of the creator, the date it was posted, and the title. Include a description in square brackets and the URL.

Example(s):

Neistat, C. (2012, November 3). Staten Island hurricane destruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Wr9594oKZNQ#

 

Basic Format for Citing Computer Software or Game

Sometimes a person is named as having rights to the software or game: in that case, list that person as the author, followed by the date in parentheses. Identify the source in square brackets as “Computer software” or “Computer game.” End with the place of publication and the publisher, or list the URL if the software is available online. If the creator is unknown, begin with the name of the software or game, followed by the label in square brackets and the date in parentheses. End with the locatin and publisher or URL. If you are referring to a specific version that isn’t included in the name, put this information last.

Example(s):

Rosetta Stone Spanish (Latin America) Level 1 [Computer software]. (2010) Arlington, VA: Rosetta Stone.

« Previous
Continue »
Introduction