For the summary:
- Focus on condensing the article to its main ideas. What is the author's main claim (if you had to reduce it to one sentence, what would you say?) What kinds of support (examples, experiences, reasons) does the author use to develop the essay?
- Develop the summary by clearly and succinctly paraphrasing (putting in your own words) the main idea(s) for your audience. Be sure to use sufficient author tags ("According to Shen. . ." etc.) so your audience will remember whose ideas are being represented.
For the response:
- Focus your response by making your own claim. Ask yourself questions like, "Where is the argument strong?" "Why do I disagree with Friedmann?"
- Develop your response by giving two or three reasons why your audience should believe your claim, and by giving several clear, relevant examples that support each of your reasons. Make the whole essay coherent by explaining your points, and by choosing an organization and style that they will be able to follow easily.