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Unit Three, Day 27 - Tuesday

Class Goals: Refine use of appeals and claims in the essays for their intended audience. Working on organization of arguments. Understand logical fallacies in arguing through analysis of George will essay (see appendix). They will, obviously, want to avoid these in their own essays, and to be able to detect them in their sources.

Connection to Course Goals: Reinforces need to identify not only one’s purpose in writing, but one’s intended audience as well, through analysis. Provides another valuable tool for critical reading and evaluating sources in the ability to identify logical fallacies.


  1. You want to devise some sort of group or paired activity that will allow students to receive some feedback from peers on how well they are anticipating their audience. You may want to have some of their readers pretend to be part of that intended audience, and others to be a part of an oppositional audience, as sort of "devil’s advocates" for the paper.
  2. Discuss organizational options in PHG and why they would want to choose a specific one.
  3. Use a student sample to discuss organization. Note: This sample was chosen because it is not well organized, to highlight the need for a clear structure in making a coherent argument. You may want to remind them of other essays, such as Nizer’s, that were more clearly organized and thus easier to read and more compelling arguments. The student essay, "Games the Military Play" in PHG is a good example of classical argument structure.
  4. Clarify fallacies (pairs could be asked to come up with examples).
  5. Have them do something similar to yesterday’s activity with the goal of being able to identify how even "smart" arguments can have some illogical points beneath the slick surface by using the Will essay.
  6. CSOW/WTL: What fallacies might they be open to, given their topics and position? How can they avoid them?

Assignment: Write a summary of your position and identify your intended audience for your essay. Bring in photocopies of your sources.