Class Goal: to illustrate effect as a concern of exigence and audience
Connection to Course Goal: Emphasize writing for a context with a purpose and development as a means to that purpose; communicating critical literacy readings to larger public.
1. Reminder of Conferences: Remind students about conferences on Monday and that class is canceled for them. Prepare a list of times you can be available on Mon. and Tues. for conferences listed by 15-20 minute intervals (usually at least 5 more times should be listed than you have class members). Pass the list around to have people sign-up as you complete other activities. Have those who absolutely cannot make any of the times listed wait until the end of class to speak to you about it. (2-3 min.)
2. Introduction. As a class, weíve discussed many cause-effect relationships at the first level (i.e. culture-t.v. program) since it will constitute the majority of your paper, but we havenít talked much about the second level: program - audience. This second level, while a smaller part of the paper, is key to addressing the audience since the reason (i.e. "so what") they might look at such an analysis will be to understand better either the show itself or their own interest/fascination with it. The two essays in RRA for today give us an idea of what some of these effects might be.
3. Discuss effect on viewers in Soto and Lewis - (20 min.) Lead the students in a discussion which focuses on how t.v. and advertising affects the lives of the two authors differently. Allow them a chance to talk about the effect of t.v. and advertising in their own lives when appropriate. Soto will be the more difficult essay for them, so if youíre short on time, start here. Reminder: The goal is to have them see that these two essays exemplify analyses of the effect of a tv show on viewers.
- What kind of analysis is Lewis doing, in terms of the three types?
- How do we know? Ask them for proof of the main focus of each essay.
- What reasons are offered for why the authors wrote these pieces? What do you think their purpose was/is?
- As we saw the last time we read, Soto believes in and tries to reproduce the images he sees on t.v. Why doesn't the reality of his life change his feelings about t.v.?
- What does he suggest about why the t.v. images are so powerful?
- Would you characterize his experience of "reproduction" as positive or negative?
- Why does he seem as influenced by t.v. as Gaines yet not give as positive a reading of this influence?
- What "effect", overall, would you say t.v. shows like Leave it to Beaver had on Soto as a boy?
- Are these kinds of effects typical? Do most people internalize t.v. images as "normal" or only kids?
- When have they ever been influenced by t.v. in ways similar to Sotoís?
- If Lewis' reading is focused on reproduction, how is she influenced by the Fila ad?
- Why is she not simply influenced negatively by the ad? What makes her experience different than Gaines or Soto?
- Do you think that Lewis would have the same "dismissive" reaction if she hadn't analyzed the ad so thoroughly? Is she implying analysis helps us see other things?
- Is there any way to tell how every viewer will react?
- If not, how can you make claims about the second part of effect in your papers (i.e. how viewers will react)?
- Discuss how effect can be proven -Ask students to consider why kind of evidence Lewis and Soto use to discuss the effect of t.v./ads on them. Then, extend the discussion to other possible ways to make claims about this aspect of a cultural analysis. Try to generate the following list with them: (5 min.)
- personal experience
- observed reactions of friends, family members, etc.
- popularity of the show (ratings, etc.)
- intended audience (through analysis of advertising) and what effect it "might" have
- claims that are tentatively stated--i.e. logical analyses about what possible effects the show may have (e.g. If the viewers of ER are assumed to be middle-class, as the ads indicate, then a show which illustrates the caring and professionalism of doctors and nurses will most likely be reassuring, reminding them that despite the recent lawsuits against doctors and problems with medical plans that they will still receive the best care possible.)
Transition to #5: Now that we have discussed the "effect" part of the paper, we have covered both parts of the analysis, cultural --à
Tv and TV--à
audience. (put cause/effect picture back up on board) Letís look at one more essay to see how this all comes together.
5. Williams Discussion (15 min.) Do only if you have time, which you may have run out of!
As a large class discussion or in groups, ask students to consider the Williams essay as a "reproduction" analysis. Evaluate with the class how well she meets the requirements of such an analysis.
- What is her overall claim about what is being reproduced on the show?
- Is this claim focused enough or is she trying to take on too much?
- Where, specifically, in the text does she offer proof from the show of her claim?
- Where, specifically, in the text does she offer proof of her claims about culture?
- What "effect" does she presume talk shows have?
- Where, specifically, does she offer proof of her claim about effect?
- Overall, does this work as an effectively argued "reproduction" analysis? Why or why not?
Assignment: Bring a thesis statement and possible outline of your paper to your conference.