Arguments written in an academic context require that the writer fully understand the ramifications of and other arguments surrounding the issue she/he takes on. In other words, rather than only picking a side of an issue and defending it as we might in a conversation, the preliminary work in more sophisticated arguments for public, educated audiences involves a good deal of research not only on the issue but also around the issue. The reason for this research is so that the writer can both establish authority on their topic by being well-versed in the positions taken on it and show knowledge of the issues and concerns surrounding their position. Such knowledge and authority allow the writer's argument to be more reasoned (i.e. fairly looking at all sides), and the writer to better understand his/her audience's knowledge of and position on the topic.