Synthesizing Material from a Variety of Sources: An academic argument is not simply a series of summaries of other authors' work. Nor is it a paraphrase of someone else's argument. Instead, academic argument is based on adding something new to an ongoing conversation about a particular issue. Adding something new requires acknowledging the work of others who have already contributed to the conversation as well as stating a position that extends this previous work. You don't need to extend the discussion a great deal. It's wonderful if you do. Frankly, however, most authors add only incrementally to the conversation.
What is important, however, is that your argument clearly articulates your own position in a way that builds on, rather than simply repeats, the positions of other authors.
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