What we'll do today in class:
- First rough draft due - intro and most of reasoning -- can leave out evidence
- Logical fallacies
- Outlines for Arguments
Connection to course goals: Organization of arguments also depends largely on making choices appropriate to their context and audience. The first activities emphasize the need to consider organization in regard to these concerns. Academic arguments are expected to be free from fallacies in logic, and the last activity will ask students to examine drafts to find any possible concerns with logic they can then revise.
- Discuss "shaping" strategies. You might highlight the "outlines for arguments" section on p.472 of the PHG, though emphasize that the parts listed here may appear in different order or, in some cases, may not be present at all.
(NOTE: In this discussion and the other activities in today's class make sure to stress the role of audience and context in choosing an effective organization. For example, a writer might choose to order their reasons differently depending on their audience. If you're writing to an audience that's pretty strongly opposed to your view, you might start with a point they'd be more willing to accept and "ease them into" some of the points they'd be less likely to accept.)
- Analyze organizational strategies for essays. Design a group activity which asks students to analyze and compare the organizations of the Koch and sample essays.
- Again, make sure to consider here how the organizations in these 2 essays respond to their respective contexts and audiences.
- For example, Koch chooses to deal with opposing views one by one and organize his arguments as a response because there are so many opposing arguments and they are so closely tied to his own arguments.
Discuss analyses of the essays.
Be sure here to highlight issues such as:
Start with your argument or by refuting opposition?
What organization works best for audience?
Block or point-by-point organization?
WTL: After discussing these organizations, how would you describe your own organization? Do you have the necessary parts of an academic argument? Is your current organization effective in terms of your context and audience? How might you re-organize the essay to make it more effective?
Discuss Logical Fallacies.
Make sure the students understand the types of logical fallacies. You might want to read over the fallacies and select several that you think they'll be most likely to have trouble with and focus on those.
Have students look at each other's rough drafts to see if they find any logical fallacies.
Mark any places in the text that might include a fallacy in logic.
Explain what kind of fallacy you think this might be and why.
Offer a suggestion about how to fix the fallacy. Cut it? Provide evidence? Restate or re-think the point?
Assignment: Bring a typed, completed draft of Essay 4 for a full workshop on Tuesday.