What we'll do today in class:
- Return Position analysis
- Based on feedback, write a revised description of context and audience
- Work on an introduction that places their claim into the context
- Logical Appeals
Connection to Course Goals: The first activities emphasize the importance of narrowing and clearly defining a context and audience in order to be able to articulate an effective argument. Beginning work on the introduction shows students that they need to address their choice of purpose and audience in their essay. Academic argument expects that writers will use the types of appeals, and the final activities ask students to consider and write appeals that will be effective within their context.
- Hand-back position analyses (5 min)
- Have them read over their position analyses and consider your feedback
- Have them write a final description of their context and audience which takes into account everything we've done till now and the feedback on their position analysis (This will be the information that makes up the COVER PAGE of their essay). After today, that context and audience should be set in stone.
- Write/start an introduction that effectively addresses your context and sets-up your purpose and focus.
- Offer students the option to either actually start writing this intro, or just list the parts of the intro they'll need.
- Discuss types of appeals.
- Emphasize that a combination of appeals is best, but using appeals is closely connected to your context, purpose, and audience.
- Also emphasize proper use of appeals. You shouldn't use emotional appeals to draw the reader's attention from an important issue.
- Design an activity which asks students to analyze an essay and how it uses appeals. Make sure they consider such issues as what appeals are used to best fit the audience of the piece in question.
- Design an activity that will have them return to their own essays and consider what type of appeals will be needed and what type will work with the audience.
- One option would be to have students write an example of one of each type of the appeals that they think they'll be able to use based on their context, audience, and purpose.
- Then have them write an explanation that explains why these appeals would be effective.
- Have them exchange their appeals and explanations with a classmate and get feedback on whether the classmate agrees that these will be effective appeals.
A ROUGH first draft - introduction and as much of the basic foundation as you can. You can leave out evidence for now.
PHG, "Logical Fallacies", 477-479
PHG, "Shaping", pp. 471-474
PHG, Koch, p.449-454
Read Sample Essay (APPENDIX)