What we'll do today in class:
- Learn the types of logical appeals
- Practice using appeals
Connection to course goals: Academic argument expects that writers will use the types of appeals, and today's activities ask students to first understand the types of appeals and then to write appeals that will be effective within their own context.
- Discuss types of appeals.
- Emphasize that a combination of appeals is best, but using appeals is closely connected to your context, purpose, and audience.
- Also emphasize proper use of appeals. You shouldn't use emotional appeals to draw the reader's attention from an important issue.
- Design an activity which asks students to analyze an essay and how it uses appeals. Make sure they consider such issues as what appeals are used to best fit the audience of the piece in question. You might also make this a group activity.
- Design an activity that will have them return to their own essays and consider what type of appeals will be needed and what type will work with the audience.
- One option would be to have students write an example of one of each type of the appeals that they think they'll be able to use based on their context, audience, and purpose.
- Then have them write an explanation that explains why these appeals would be effective.
- Have them exchange their appeals and explanations with a classmate and get feedback on whether the classmate agrees that these will be effective appeals.
PHG, "Shaping", pp. 471-474
PHG, Koch, p.449-454
Read Sample Essay (APPENDIX)