The parenthetical documentation in your text refers your reader to your "Works Cited" page. Here, your reader will find the complete bibliographic information of all the sources you cite in your paper. Works cited lists appear at the end of a scholarly work but are begun on a new page. (Page numbers continue from the text.) The title, "Works Cited," is centered and placed one inch from the top of the page. Citations begin at the left margin; if a citation is more than one line long, its succeeding lines are indented five spaces. The entire list is double-spaced, both within and between citations. In general, works cited lists are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. If the author is unknown, entries are alphabetized by the first word in their titles (note, however, to drop A, An, or The). Titles of books, periodicals, newspapers, and films are italicized. Titles of articles that appear in newspapers or periodicals are placed in quotation marks. Normally, each entry has three main divisions: author's name (reversed for alphabetizing), title, and publication information. Follow each division with a period and two spaces.
Below are examples of the most common types of entries you will be compiling. If you need to document a type of source not in this list, please refer to The MLA Style Manual (1988).
Books When citing books, arrange the information as follows:
Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article or Part of Book." Title of Book. Ed. or Trans. Name of editor or translator. Edition. Number of Volumes. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Date of Publication.
Single author Reid, Stephen. The Prentice-Hall Guide for College Writers. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1992.
Two or three authors Cooper, Sheila, and Rosemary Patton. Ergo: Thinking Critically and Writing Logically. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
More than three authors Donald, Robert B., et al. Models for Clear Writing. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
An anthology Columbo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle, eds. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford, 1992.
Mazur, Laurie Ann, ed. Beyond the Numbers: Population, Consumption, and the Environment. Washington: Island Press, 1994.
A book by a corporate author American Council on Education. Annual Report, 1970. Washington: Amer. Council on Educ., 1971.
Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. Giving Youth a Better Chance: Options for Education, Work, and Service. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980.
An anonymous book (Alphabetize your entry, using the first word of the title other than an indefinite or definite article. A Handbook of Korea, for example, is alphabetized under "H.")
Dictionary of Ancient Greek Civilizations. London: Methuen, 1966.
A Handbook of Korea. 4th ed. Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service, Ministry of Culture and Information, 1982.
The Times Atlas of the World. 5th ed. New York: New York Times, 1975.
A work in an anthology (Cite the pages on which the piece appears after the year of publication, a period, and two spaces.)
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Against Nature." The Contemporary Essay. Ed. Donald Hall. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford, 1989. 358-65.
Quammen, David. "Dirty Word, Clean Place." Being in the World: An Environmental Reader for Writers. Ed. Scott E. Slovic and Terrel F. Dixon. New York: Macmillan, 1993. 646-60.
An article in a reference book (If the article is signed, cite the author first. If it is unsigned, cite the title first. If the encyclopedia or dictionary alphabetizes its entries, you do not need to cite volume or page numbers. If the reference book is very common, you need cite only the edition--if given--and the year of publication.)
"Graham, Martha." Who's Who of American Women. 13th ed. 1983-4.
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
Trainen, Isaac N., et al. "Religious Directives in Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Warren T. Reich. 4 vols. New York: Free, 1978.
Articles in Periodicals The usual order of information follows: Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical volume number (date of publication): inclusive page numbers.
Article in a weekly or biweekly periodical Gorman, Christine. "Why It's So Hard to Quit Smoking." TIME 30 May (1988): 56.
Article in a monthly or bimonthly Hanococks, David. "Animals from All Over Down Under." Animal Kingdom Nov.-Dec. (1986): 50-61.
Unsigned article in a magazine "Catching a Cold: It's Up in the Air." Science86 July-Aug. (1986): 8.
Article in a newspaper Lewandowski, J. "Wilderness: Wonderful or Wasted?" Fort Collins Coloradoan 28 Aug. 1994: Al.
Schreiner, Tim. "Future Is A) Dim or B) Bright (Pick One)." USA Today 2 June 1989: 3A.
Anonymous article in a newspaper "President's News Conference on Foreign and Domestic Issues." New York Times 20 Nov. 1986: A12-13.
Editorial Haavind, Robert. "Artificial Intelligence Has a Bad Name." Editorial. High Technology Dec. 1986: 4.
Anonymous editorial "Details, Accountability Key to Winning Mill Hike." Editorial. Fort Collins Coloradoan 29 Aug. 1994: E2.
Letter to the editor Schroeder, Rick. "Save Some of the Best Areas." Letter. Fort Collins Coloradoan 28 Aug. 1994: E3.
An introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword Acthert, Walter S. and Joseph Gibaldi. Preface. The Style Manual New York: MLA, 1968.
Rees, Judith. Introduction. Natural Resources: Allocation, Economics and Policy. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1985.
Government Publications If the author of the publication is unknown, order your bibliographic information as follows, omitting what does not apply:
Name of government. Government agency (abbreviate when possible). Title of the publication. Number and session of Congress. House or Senate. Number of the publication. Publication place: Publisher, publication date.
New York State. Committee on State Prisons. Investigation of the New York State Prisons. 1883. New York: Arno, 1974.
United Nations. Centre for National Resources. State Petroleum Enterprises in Developing Countries. Elmsford: Pergamon, 1980.
Economic Commission for Africa. Industrial Growth in Africa. New York: United Nations, 1963.
United States. Senate. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary. Hearing on the "Equal Rights" Amendment. 91st Cong., 2nd sess. S. Res. 61. Washington: GPO, 1970.
(If the author of a government publication is known, you have two options. Cite the author first, followed by the title of the document, or cite the government agency first, followed by the title, followed by "By" the author.)
Washburne, E. B. Memphis Riots and Massacres. U. S. 39th Cong., 2nd sess. H. Rept. 101. 1866. New York: Arno, 1969. or
United States. Cong. House. Memphis Riots and Massacres. By E. B. Washburne. 39th Cong., 2nd sess. H. Rept. 101. 1866. New York: Arno, 1969.
Film Star Trek XV: The Voyage Home. Dir. Leonard Nimoy. With William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy. Paramount, 1986.
Television or radio program 60 Minutes. CBS. KMGH, Denver. 30 Nov. 1986.
Lectures, speeches, and addresses (If no title is given, use an appropriate description--Lecture, Address, etc.)
Ciardi, John. Address. Opening General Sess. NCTE Convention. Washington, Nov. 1982.
Ridley, Florence. "Forget the Past, Reject the Future: Chaos Is Come Again." Div. on Teaching of Literature, MLA Convention. Los Angeles, 28 Dec. 1982.
Unpublished dissertation or thesis Burnhan, William A. "Peregrine Falcon Egg Variation, Incubation, and Population Recovery Strategy." Diss. Colorado State U, 1984.
Interviews (Begin your citation with the name of the interviewee. If the interview was published or recorded, give the bibliographic information for its source. If you conducted the interview, give the kind of interview and the date.)
Gordon, Suzanne. Interview. All Things Considered. Natl. Public Radio. WNYC, New York. 1 June 1983.
Pei. I. M. Personal interview. 27 July 1983.
Pussaint, Alvin F. Telephone interview. 10 Dec. 1980.
Pamphlet (Treat a pamphlet as you would a book.)
Guide to Raptors. Denver: Center for Raptor Research, 1990.
Kilgus, Robert. Color Scrpsit Program Manual. Fort Worth: Tandy, 1981.