the assumptions and implications of Hayward’s argument
interpretive responses by attaching reasons and evidence to assumptions and
third type of response - analyzing the effectiveness of a text
on responses and make plans to revise for portfolio one
Connection to Course Goals
Discussing assumptions and implications will
help students to think critically about a writer’s argument - to look beyond what
a writer says for additional meanings in a text. Discussing reasons and
evidence will encourage students to develop the claims in their interpretive
responses with substantial support.
time we discussed assumptions and implications as a way to develop our
interpretive responses. Today, we’re going to continue with this idea, looking
at examples from Hayward’s text. You should use this discussion as a way to
reflect on your homework responses to Hayward. Try to determine, at the end of
class, whether your response adequately identifies assumptions and
implications, and whether it is fully developed with reasons and evidence.”
on homework (3 minutes): Have
students begin by refreshing their memories. Ask them to silently glance back
over their responses to Hayward’s essay.
Model Transition to Next
Activity: “So now that you’ve recalled your
response to Hayward, let’s discuss the various assumptions and implications in
his argument as a group. This will set us up for critically examining and
interpreting his argument so that we can produce effective responses for
assumptions and implications from Hayward’s essay (20 minutes): (Decide whether your class needs to review
the terms “assumptions” and “implications” before beginning this activity). The
goal for this activity is to check to see that students are able to pinpoint
some of the assumptions and implications in Hayward’s argument. The
interpretive response demands the most critical thinking, so you may need to
provide prompts to help students “dig deeper.” During this activity, list
students’ responses on the board and tell them to use their homework as a
Here are some of the assumptions and
implications in Hayward’s argument. You may add to this list or change these as
you see fit. If students get stuck or offer limited answers encourage them to
think harder about the observations below. Rather than repeating these,
formulate questions to help students think more critically:
does Hayward assume about his audience?
does Hayward assume about liberals’ intentions?
does Hayward’s argument imply about the fate of smart growth plans?
Hayward assumes that:
readers are conservative Republicans
are old enough to understand what happened with bussing in the 1970s and the
problems associated with urban renewal
don’t mind “spending too much time in traffic”
only concerns people when there’s nothing else to worry about
cannot have negative effects on our ecosystem as a whole (he doesn’t consider
loss of species, wildlife, atmosphere, or climate changes to be a problem
resulting from lack of planning for growth)
not acceptable to use “old means” (such as the light rail) to solve “new
challenges” such as traffic congestion
cars are not a threat to our planet or to our health
readers will want to defend the American suburban lifestyle
Hayward’s argument implies that:
no need for growth planning and that urban sprawl should be cast aside as an
simply using “smart growth” as a way to appeal to voters (since rhetoric makes
it difficult for opponents to argue against it)
should not use past means to achieve future goals (light rails are outdated, 19th
and city planners are using “urban sprawl” as a ploy to eliminate cars
plans will “fail” the same way that urban renewal plans failed in the past
Model Transition to Next
Activity: “Now that we’ve located the
assumptions and implications, let’s use these observations to develop a
response that either supports or challenges the credibility of Hayward’s
developing an interpretive response to Hayward’s text by developing reasons and
evidence to support or refute assumptions and implications (15 minutes):The goal of this activity is to help students develop their
observations into well-reasoned and well-supported responses. First, explain
(or create a mini-outline on an overhead) how a writer can develop an
interpretive response by addressing:
they agree/disagree with that assumption/implication
·reasons why the assumption/implication is valid or problematic
·evidence to prove that the assumption/implication is valid or problematic
Then, practice this process by consulting the
list of assumptions and implications. Ask students to consider whether or not
they would support or refute Hayward’s assumptions and implications. Then,
choose examples from the board to practice developing with reasons and
evidence. To be fair, you’ll want to address both “support” and “refute”
Here’s how it might look: One of Hayward’s implications:
that there is no need for growth planning and that urban sprawl should be cast
aside as an unimportant issue
students agree/disagree with this? (take one side at a time)
reasons can students offer for why they agree/disagree? (reasons must be
substantial and something that can be supported - “It’s stupid” won’t cut it)
evidence can students provide for why they agree/disagree (i.e. personal
experience - “I used to ride my horse along the back roads and now I can’t
because there are huge Safeway trucks and Wal-Mart semis that come plowing
through and scare my horse silly. I would say that this issue is important
based on my tragic experience.”).
** Explain to students that without evidence,
their responses are reduced to a list of opinions or unsupported rants. Also,
warn students that they may need to search for textual evidence to support “gut
feelings” or reactions. Support is easy to come by through library databases.
on discussion and make plans to revise responses (5 minutes):Ask students to reflect on today’s lesson, then to look back over their
homework responses to Hayward and jot down notes for revision. If they were to
revise this essay for portfolio one, what changes would they need to make to
strengthen and develop their response.
the third type of response - analyzing the effectiveness of a text (10
minutes): Begin by telling
students that they could write an agree/disagree response or an interpretive
response for this essay to turn in with portfolio one. However, for your
immediate purposes, you’re going to focus on writing an analytic response.
Review the following definition. Put this on
an overhead or refer students to the responding section in the PHG.
The goal of an analytical
response is to determine a text's effectiveness by examining its parts. You might
look at the purpose, the intended audience, the thesis, the main ideas,
organization, evidence, language, and style. Your objective for writing an
analytic response is to point out a text’s strong points and/or where it falls
short. Analyzing the text's effectiveness allows you to make more informed
decisions about the usefulness and credibility of a writer's argument.
Transition to Next Activity: Write
a transition linking these two activities (for assistance, look at the section
on writing transitions from the guide on “Planning a Class” located in your
discussing how to write an analytic response to Hayward’s argument (20
minutes): Review each of the
elements or criteria for analytic evaluation. Encourage students to refer to
the text when responding to the following questions. Try to push them beyond
giving surface responses (remind them that in their essays they’ll need to
develop answers with reasons and evidence rather than generalizations). Use the
following questions as a guide to review the elements for evaluating a writer’s
text analytically (feel free to add to these):
Hayward effectively accomplish his purpose in this text? Why or why not?
argument meet the needs and interests of his intended readers? Who are they?
What are their values? What are their beliefs? Would they oppose or support his
argument? Why or Why not?
you say about the organization of Hayward’s argument? Was it easy to follow?
Did it progress in a logical order?
about the evidence he uses to support his argument?
he support his main points? Who are his sources? Are they reliable? Does he
support all of his claims? What kind of evidence does he use? Which claims
doesn’t he support?
** Explain that analytical responses can
serve to: praise a writer for the effectiveness of their text; point out the
problems or shortcomings in a writer’s argument; praise some parts of a
writer’s argument and challenge others.
Write a conclusion for today’s
lesson. For assistance, look at the section on writing introductions and
conclusions from the guide on Planning a Class located in the Teaching
Guides on Writing@CSU (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/planning/).
You can also find a copy of the Guide in your appendix.
Read the NASA report on global warming titled, “Global
by John Weier (April 8, 2002) .
Then, read “No Surprise - Global Warming is worse than you thought” by Ronald
Write a short paragraph summarizing Bailey’s argument. What main points does he
raise in opposition to the IPCC’s report on global warming? (Optional: check
out the IPCC’s summary for policymakers online at: http://www.ippc.ch/pub/spm22-01.pdf.)
Then write a two page analytic response for Bailey’s argument focusing on one
or two of the criteria we reviewed in class. Once you’ve decided which criteria
you’ll look at (i.e. use of tone and use of evidence) construct an overall
claim to map out your response. Begin your response with that claim and develop
reasons and evidence to support it. Post
your summary and response as a message to the SyllaBase Class Discussion Forum.
Bring a hard copy of your draft to class.