·Use student’s homework to discuss writing a
summary of Schrag's essay
·Discuss effective use of paraphrasing and
quoting. (See page 194 in PHG.)
·Introduce the concept of responding.
Connection to Course Goals
Discussing Schrag's essay will help students
apply their knowledge about academic summary to a much more lengthy and
complicated essay. Similarly, discussing effective use of paraphrasing and
quoting will help students write more accurate and concise summaries
(especially when dealing with longer texts). Introducing all three types of
response will prepare students to think about the various ways they can respond
to a text and develop their ideas with reasons and evidence. Responding is also
important for the thematic aims of this course because it allows students to
invest their own ideas on issues of public importance.
1.Model Introduction:“Today we’ll
continue discussing summary, applying ideas to Schrag’s essay (since his essay
is more challenging than Singer’s text). We’ll also review how to effectively
paraphrase and quote from a text. This is a useful skill to learn for writing
summaries (especially for writing summaries of longer texts, like Schrag’s). Finally,
we’ll look at the different ways you might respond to an essay after you’ve
successfully summarized it.”
2.Use students' homework to discuss
summarizing Schrag's essay: This
activity aims to get students thinking about how they might organize all of the
key points and evidence from Schrag's essay into an academic summary.
Part I (10 minutes): Tell students that you'd like them to
practice summarizing a complicated essay by listing all of the main points and
important evidence from Schrag's essay on the board. Guide this discussion by
writing the following categories on the board, and have students use their
homework to generate responses:
Schrag's Overall Argument or Main Point:
Key Points made byProponents of High Stakes Testing:
Key Points made byOpponents of High Stakes Testing:
Why Evidence is Important to Writer's
**Note: Be sure you've read through Schrag's
essay beforehand and generated your own answers for this activity so you're
prepared to deal with various responses in class. If students offer incorrect
answers, ask them to refer to the text to show you where their ideas came from.
If possible, try to avoid having to take on the role of correcting them
yourself. Encouraging students to respond to each other's ideas will make the
class more student-centered and means you don't have to come down on them for
being wrong. But, of course, do correct them if the class fails to. A little
discomfort now is better than leaving people with a misinterpretation of the
Model Transition to Next
Activity:Now that we know what could
be included in an academic summary for Schrag's essay, let's think about how we
might select and arrange this information.
Part II (15-20 minutes): Have students break up into groups of three.
Ask them to generate a tentative outline for how they might organize the
information on the board into an academic summary. One method for facilitating
this activity is to pass out dry erase markers and have them write on overhead
transparencies. This way, students can easily present their group work to the
class. Or, just have them write on paper. Ask students to consider: How would
they start their summary? How long should it be? Which information seems most
important to include? Which points seem less important? Tell them that they do
not have to write out a complete summary for Schrag’s essay; just an outline
with a list of ideas.
Have two or three groups present their
outlines. You might wander around the room as they work and choose groups whose
outlines look the strongest (secretly, of course). After they present, ask them
to explain why they decided to structure their summary this way. Be sure to
point out what you think is effective from their outline and also how it could
Model Transition to Next
Activity:Since there is so much
information for an academic summary of Schrag's essay, it would help to think
about ways to efficiently represent all of the key points. One way to ensure
that you're covering all of the key points in a concise manner is to paraphrase
or condense lengthy quotes.
effective use of paraphrasing and quoting (10 minutes):Design an activity where you model effective and ineffective use of
paraphrasing and quoting. You might prepare examples beforehand OR have
students help generate ideas using Schrag's essay.
Cover the following points (Use page 194 in
the PHGas a guide):
a.Discuss where and how often students should
use paraphrasing and quoting in their summaries. (For example: It is
ineffective to string together several quotes, as this infringes on the
writer's voice; but it is also ineffective to paraphrase too often, as ideas
need to be supported with textual evidence).
b.Explain that quotes need to logically fit
into the sentence structure. For example:
oIneffective: Schrag argues, "…parents face the
possibility that their children will not graduate, pressure to lower the
bar…will almost certainly increase."
oEffective: Schrag argues that, "…as more parents
face the possibility that their children will not graduate, pressure to lower
the bar…will almost certainly increase."
c.Review any other points mentioned in the PHG or that you feel are important.
Model Transition to Next
Activity:For the last ten minutes of
class, we're going to shift our focus from summarizing to responding. For
homework today, I asked you to read about the different types of responses
listed on page 162- 163 in the PHG. If you recall, your audience for Essay 1
will be most interested in your response. So it's important that we start
thinking about the different types of response you can provide. Please open
your books to… .
4.Introduce the concept of responding (10
minutes): The goal of this
discussion is to briefly introduce students to all three types of response:
agree/disagree, interpretive/reflective, analytic/evaluative. They will
practice all three types with upcoming essays. For now, it's only important
that they understand the differences between each type. Also, let them know
that a combination of responses is possible for Essay 1. If they choose a
combination, however, they need to be sure that their response makes an overall
Review the points on page 162 in the PHG, highlighting important concepts and
phrases, and check out the teaching guide on Types of Summary and Response (http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/teaching/summaryresponse/).
Be sure to discuss kinds of evidence and ask students to consider which kinds
of evidence would work best for different types of response. Since students
will be writing an agree/disagree response to Schrag's essay for homework, you
might focus the conversation here. Remind them that, in addition to giving a
response, they must also provide reasons
and evidence to show readers why they
agree or disagree with an idea.
5.Model Conclusion: “Today we considered approaches
to summarizing a more complicated essay. Hopefully, you’re starting to feel
more comfortable with these concepts. We’ll continue to practice summarizing,
but for the remainder of the portfolio, our discussions will focus on
responding. If you’re still struggling with summary concepts, you should visit
my office hours or drop by the Writing Center in the basement of Eddy.”
Choose one main idea from Schrag's essay and write a
one-and-a-half to two-page response to that idea. Write out the main idea,
providing author tags to show whose idea it is. Then, respond to the idea,
stating whether you agree or disagree with it. Give reasons for why you agree
or disagree and provide specific evidence to show why you feel this way
(personal experience, cultural observations, or textual evidence). Post your
response to the class discussion forum on Syllabase. Bring a printed copy of
your response to class.